Main Article Content
Evidence before the COVID-19 outbreak indicated that healthcare workers’ hand hygiene compliance had been low. Although hand hygiene compliance has improved during the COVID-19 pandemic, it's necessary to plan a tailored and targeted hand hygiene promotion strategy to maintain changes. Therefore, the aim of this review was to assess experimental theory-based studies on hand hygiene improvement in order to identify the best theory and constructs with higher effectiveness. The study design is a systematic review. The search strategy was developed, and Medline (PubMed), ProQuest, Web of Knowledge, Scopus, Cochrane Trials, and Science Direct databases were searched up to May 26, 2020, without time limitation. Review Manager 5.1 software was used to determine the risk of bias. Irrelevant articles, non-original articles, non-interventional studies, and those that lacked a theoretical framework were excluded. A total of eight articles were entered into the final analysis, including three randomized clinical trials and five quasi-experimental studies. In these studies, theories were reported at intrapersonal, interpersonal, and organizational levels. Moreover, some studies evaluated multifaceted interventions involving various levels of influence. Finally, we suggested an integrated multi-level approach to promote hand hygiene (IMAPH) with a comprehensive theoretical framework for designing interventions.
Keywords: Healthcare workers, Hand hygiene, Theory-based intervention, Systematic review, Multi theory model
Transfer of Copyrights
- In the event of publication of the manuscript entitled [INSERT MANUSCRIPT TITLE AND REF NO.] in the Malaysian Journal of Science, I hereby transfer copyrights of the manuscript title, abstract and contents to the Malaysian Journal of Science and the Faculty of Science, University of Malaya (as the publisher) for the full legal term of copyright and any renewals thereof throughout the world in any format, and any media for communication.
Conditions of Publication
- I hereby state that this manuscript to be published is an original work, unpublished in any form prior and I have obtained the necessary permission for the reproduction (or am the owner) of any images, illustrations, tables, charts, figures, maps, photographs and other visual materials of whom the copyrights is owned by a third party.
- This manuscript contains no statements that are contradictory to the relevant local and international laws or that infringes on the rights of others.
- I agree to indemnify the Malaysian Journal of Science and the Faculty of Science, University of Malaya (as the publisher) in the event of any claims that arise in regards to the above conditions and assume full liability on the published manuscript.
- Reviewers must treat the manuscripts received for reviewing process as confidential. It must not be shown or discussed with others without the authorization from the editor of MJS.
- Reviewers assigned must not have conflicts of interest with respect to the original work, the authors of the article or the research funding.
- Reviewers should judge or evaluate the manuscripts objective as possible. The feedback from the reviewers should be express clearly with supporting arguments.
- If the assigned reviewer considers themselves not able to complete the review of the manuscript, they must communicate with the editor, so that the manuscript could be sent to another suitable reviewer.
Copyright: Rights of the Author(s)
- Effective 2007, it will become the policy of the Malaysian Journal of Science (published by the Faculty of Science, University of Malaya) to obtain copyrights of all manuscripts published. This is to facilitate:
(a) Protection against copyright infringement of the manuscript through copyright breaches or piracy.
(b) Timely handling of reproduction requests from authorized third parties that are addressed directly to the Faculty of Science, University of Malaya.
- As the author, you may publish the fore-mentioned manuscript, whole or any part thereof, provided acknowledgement regarding copyright notice and reference to first publication in the Malaysian Journal of Science and Faculty of Science, University of Malaya (as the publishers) are given.
You may produce copies of your manuscript, whole or any part thereof, for teaching purposes or to be provided, on individual basis, to fellow researchers.
- You may include the fore-mentioned manuscript, whole or any part thereof, electronically on a secure network at your affiliated institution, provided acknowledgement regarding copyright notice and reference to first publication in the Malaysian Journal of Science and Faculty of Science, University of Malaya (as the publishers) are given.
- You may include the fore-mentioned manuscript, whole or any part thereof, on the World Wide Web, provided acknowledgement regarding copyright notice and reference to first publication in the Malaysian Journal of Science and Faculty of Science, University of Malaya (as the publishers) are given.
- In the event that your manuscript, whole or any part thereof, has been requested to be reproduced, for any purpose or in any form approved by the Malaysian Journal of Science and Faculty of Science, University of Malaya (as the publishers), you will be informed. It is requested that any changes to your contact details (especially e-mail addresses) are made known.
Copyright: Role and responsibility of the Author(s)
- In the event of the manuscript to be published in the Malaysian Journal of Science contains materials copyrighted to others prior, it is the responsibility of current author(s) to obtain written permission from the copyright owner or owners.
- This written permission should be submitted with the proof-copy of the manuscript to be published in the Malaysian Journal of Science
Alzyood, M., Jackson, D., Aveyard, H. & Brooke, J. (2020). COVID‐19 reinforces the importance of handwashing. Journal of clinical nursing, 2020:1–2.
Assefa, D., Melaku, T., Bayisa, B. & Alemu, S. (2021). Knowledge, Attitude and Self-Reported Performance and Challenges of Hand Hygiene Using Alcohol-Based Hand Sanitizers Among Healthcare Workers During COVID-19 Pandemic at a Tertiary Hospital: A Cross-Sectional Study. Infection and Drug Resistance, 14: 303–313.
Battilana, J. & Casciaro, T. (2012). Change agents, networks, and institutions: A contingency theory of organizational change. Academy of Management Journal, 55(2): 381-398.
Champion, V. L. & Skinner, C. S. (2008). The Health Belief Model. In: Glanz K, Rimer B, Viswanath K, editors. Health behavior and health education. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, 4:45–65.
Cialdini, R. B. & Goldstein, N. J. (2004). Social influence: Compliance and conformity. Annual Review of Psychology, 55: 591-621.
Creedon, S. A. (2005). Healthcare workers' hand decontamination practices: Compliance with recommended guidelines. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 51(3): 208-216.
Cunningham, D., Brilli, R. J., Mcclead JR, R. E. & Davis, J. T. (2018). The safety stand-down: a technique for improving and sustaining hand hygiene compliance among health care personnel. journal of patient safety, 14(2):107-111.
D'egidio, G., Patel, R., Rashidi, B., Mansour, M., Sabri, E. & Milgram, P. (2014). A study of the efficacy of flashing lights to increase the salience of alcohol-gel dispensers for improving hand hygiene compliance. American Journal of Infection Control, 42(8): 852-855.
Fuller, C., Michie, S., Savage, J., Mcateer, J., Besser, S., Charlett, A., Hayward, A., Cookson, B. D., Cooper, B. S., Duckworth, G., Jeanes, A., Roberts, J., Teare, L. & Stone, S. (2012). The Feedback Intervention Trial (FIT)--improving hand-hygiene compliance in UK healthcare workers: a stepped wedge cluster randomised controlled trial. PloS one, 7:e41617.
Gielen, A. C., Mcdonald, E. M., Gary, T. L. & Bone, L. R. (2008). Using the precede-proceed model to apply health behavior theories. In Health Behavior and Health Education: Theory, Research, and Practice, 4th edn, K Glanz, BK Rimer, K Viswanath (eds). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass; 407– 432.
Gon, G., Dancer, S., Dreibelbis, R., Graham, W. J. & Kilpatrick, C. (2020). Reducing hand recontamination of healthcare workers during COVID-19. Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology,41(7):1-2.
Hargreaves, J., Davey, C., Auerbach, J., Blanchard, J., Bond, V., Bonell, C., Burgess, R., Busza, J., Colbourn, T. & Cowan, F. (2020). Three lessons for the COVID-19 response from pandemic HIV. The Lancet HIV, 7(5): e309-e311.
Harne-Britner, S., Allen, M. & Fowler, K. A. (2011). Improving hand hygiene adherence among nursing staff. Journal of nursing care quality, 26(1):39-48.
Huis, A., Schoonhoven, L., Grol, R., Donders, R., Hulscher, M. & Van Achterberg, T. (2013). Impact of a team and leaders-directed strategy to improve nurses' adherence to hand hygiene guidelines: a cluster randomised trial. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 50(4): 464-474.
Huis, A., Van Achterberg, T., De Bruin, M., Grol, R., Schoonhoven, L. & Hulscher, M. (2012). A systematic review of hand hygiene improvement strategies: a behavioural approach. Implementation Science, 7: 92.
Jordan, V. (2020). Coronavirus (COVID-19): infection control and prevention measures. Journal of Primary Health Care, 12(1): 96-97.
Konicki, T. & Miller, E. (2016). Use of a simulation intervention to examine differences in nursing students' hand hygiene knowledge, beliefs, and behaviors. Nurse Education Today, 45: 96-101.
Lemieux‐Charles, L., Murray, M., Ross Baker, G., Barnsley, J., Tasa, K. & Ibrahim, S. A. (2002). The effects of quality improvement practices on team effectiveness: a mediational model. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 23: 533-553.
Locke, E. A. & Latham, G. P. (2013). Goal setting theory: The current state. In Locke, E. A., Latham, G. P. (Eds.), New developments in goal setting and task performance. New York, NY: Routledge; 623-630.
Lussier, R. N. & Achua, C. F. (2015). Leadership: Theory, application, & skill development. Mason, OH: South-Western.
Michie, S., West, R., Amlôt, R. & Rubin, J. (2020). Slowing down the COVID-19 outbreak: changing behaviour by understanding it. BMJ.
Moola, S., Munn, Z., Sears, K., Sfetcu, R., Currie, M., Lisy, K., Tufanaru, C., Qureshi, R., Mattis, P. & Mu, P. (2015). Conducting systematic reviews of association (etiology): The Joanna Briggs Institute's approach. International journal of evidence-based healthcare, 13(3):163-169.
Nevo, I., Fitzpatrick, M., Thomas, R.-E., Gluck, P. A., Lenchus, J. D., Arheart, K. L. & Birnbach, D. J. (2010). The efficacy of visual cues to improve hand hygiene compliance. Simulation in Healthcare, 5(6): 325-331.
Omar, Z. & Ahmad, A. (2014). Factors Contributing to Research Team Effectiveness: Testing a Model of Team Effectiveness in an Academic Setting. International Journal of Higher Education, 3(3): 10-26.
Pakpour, A. & Griffiths, M. (2020). The fear of COVID-19 and its role in preventive behaviors. Journal of Concurrent Disorders. 2 (1): 58-63
Reigeluth, C. M. (2013). Instructional-design theories and models: A new paradigm of instructional theory, volume II. New York, NY: Routledge.
Schunk, D. H. (2012). Social cognitive theory. In K. R. Harris, S. Graham, & T. Urdan (Eds.), APA Educational Psychology Handbook: Vol. 1. Theories, Constructs, and Critical Issues. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association; 101–123.
Schwarzer, R. (2016). Health action process approach (HAPA) as a theoretical framework to understand behavior change. Actualidades en Psicología, 30: 119-130.
Staines, A., Vanderavero, P., Duvillard, B., Deriaz, P., Erard, P., Kundig, F., Juillet, C. & Clerc, O. (2018). Sustained improvement in hand hygiene compliance using a multimodal improvement program at a Swiss multisite regional hospital. Journal of Hospital Infection,100(2):176-182.
Sundal, J. S., Aune, A. G., Storvig, E., Aasland, J. K., Fjeldsæter, K. L. & Torjuul, K. (2017). The hand hygiene compliance of student nurses during clinical placements. Journal of clinical nursing, 26(23-24): 4646-4653.
Team, E. E. (2020). Note from the editors: World Health Organization declares novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) sixth public health emergency of international concern. Eurosurveillance, 25: 200131e.
Treadway, D. C., Breland, J. W., Williams, L. M., Cho, J., Yang, J. & Ferris, G. R. (2013). Social influence and interpersonal power in organizations: Roles of performance and political skill in two studies. Journal of management, 39(6): 1529-1553.
Von Lengerke, T., Lutze, B., Graf, K., Krauth, C., Lange, K., Schwadtke, L., Stahmeyer, J. & Chaberny, I. F. (2013). Applying psychological behaviour change theories on hand hygiene: first results of the PSYGIENE-project on social-cognitive and organisational resources. International journal of medical microbiology, 303:31- 34.
Von lengerke, T., Lutze, B., Krauth, C., Lange, K., Stahmeyer, J. T. & Chaberny, I. F. (2017). Promoting hand hygiene compliance: PSYGIENE—a cluster-randomized controlled trial of tailored interventions. Deutsches Ärzteblatt International, 114(3): 29–36.
Wickens, C. D. & Mccarley, J. S. (2019). Applied attention theory, CRC press.
Wood, W. 2000. Attitude change: Persuasion and social influence. Annual review of psychology, 51(1): 539-570.
World Health Organization. (2020). Rational use of personal protective equipment (PPE) for coronavirus disease (COVID-19): interim guidance. Geneva. World Health Organization.
World Health Organization. (2009). A guide to the implementation of the WHO multimodal hand hygiene improvement strategy. Geneva: World Health Organization.
Young, C. & Ghoshal, S.( 2016). Organization theory and the multinational corporation, Springer.