Malaysian Journal of Science <p style="text-align: justify;">Malaysian Journal of Science (MJS) is the official peer-reviewed open-access journal of the <a href="">Faculty of Science, Universiti Malaya</a>. Effective from the year 2024 onwards, the frequency of regular issues publication is four times a year. MJS is indexed in <a href="">Scopus</a>, <a href=";as_sdt=0%2C5&amp;q=Malaysian+Journal+of+Science&amp;btnG=">Google Scholar</a>, <a href="">Chemical Abstracts Service Database</a>, <a href="">ASEAN Citation Index (ACI)</a>, and <a href="">MYCite</a>.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">MJS is a reputable journal with a growing audience, which focuses on current developments in all disciplines of science. The journal publishes original articles, review articles, short communications, and case reports that are of importance to the scientific community. </p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>eISSN : 2600-8688<br /></strong><strong><strong>Print ISSN : 1394-3065<br /></strong></strong><strong><strong>Publisher : Faculty of Science, Universiti Malaya</strong></strong> </p> en-US <p><strong>Transfer of Copyrights</strong></p> <ul> <li><strong> </strong>In the event of publication of the manuscript entitled <strong>[INSERT MANUSCRIPT TITLE AND REF NO.] </strong>in the <em>Malaysian Journal of Science</em>, I hereby transfer copyrights of the manuscript title, abstract and contents to the <em>Malaysian Journal of Science</em> and the Faculty of Science, University of Malaya (as the publisher) for the full legal term of copyright and any renewals thereof throughout the world in any format, and any media for communication.</li> </ul> <p> </p> <p><strong>Conditions of Publication</strong></p> <ul> <li><strong> </strong>I hereby state that this manuscript to be published is an original work, unpublished in any form prior and I have obtained the necessary permission for the reproduction (or am the owner) of any images, illustrations, tables, charts, figures, maps, photographs and other visual materials of whom the copyrights is owned by a third party.</li> <li>This manuscript contains no statements that are contradictory to the relevant local and international laws or that infringes on the rights of others.</li> <li>I agree to indemnify the <em>Malaysian Journal of Science</em> and the Faculty of Science, University of Malaya (as the publisher) in the event of any claims that arise in regards to the above conditions and assume full liability on the published manuscript.</li> </ul> <p> </p> <p><strong>Reviewer’s Responsibilities</strong></p> <ul> <li>Reviewers must treat the manuscripts received for reviewing process as confidential. It must not be shown or discussed with others without the authorization from the editor of MJS.</li> <li>Reviewers assigned must not have conflicts of interest with respect to the original work, the authors of the article or the research funding.</li> <li>Reviewers should judge or evaluate the manuscripts objective as possible. The feedback from the reviewers should be express clearly with supporting arguments.</li> <li>If the assigned reviewer considers themselves not able to complete the review of the manuscript, they must communicate with the editor, so that the manuscript could be sent to another suitable reviewer.</li> </ul> <p> </p> <p><strong>Copyright: Rights of the Author(s)</strong></p> <ul> <li>Effective 2007, it will become the policy of the Malaysian Journal of Science (published by the Faculty of Science, University of Malaya) to obtain copyrights of all manuscripts published. This is to facilitate:<br />(a) Protection against copyright infringement of the manuscript through copyright breaches or piracy<strong>. <br /></strong>(b) Timely handling of reproduction requests from authorized third parties that are addressed directly to the Faculty of Science, University of Malaya.</li> <li>As the author, you may publish the fore-mentioned manuscript, whole or any part thereof, provided acknowledgement regarding copyright notice and reference to first publication in the <em>Malaysian Journal of Science</em> and Faculty of Science, University of Malaya (as the publishers) are given.<br />You may produce copies of your manuscript, whole or any part thereof, for teaching purposes or to be provided, on individual basis, to fellow researchers.</li> <li>You may include the fore-mentioned manuscript, whole or any part thereof, electronically on a secure network at your affiliated institution, provided acknowledgement regarding copyright notice and reference to first publication in the <em>Malaysian Journal of Science</em> and Faculty of Science, University of Malaya (as the publishers) are given.</li> <li>You may include the fore-mentioned manuscript, whole or any part thereof, on the World Wide Web, provided acknowledgement regarding copyright notice and reference to first publication in the <em>Malaysian Journal of Science</em> and Faculty of Science, University of Malaya (as the publishers) are given.</li> <li>In the event that your manuscript, whole or any part thereof, has been requested to be reproduced, for any purpose or in any form approved by the <em>Malaysian Journal of Science</em> and Faculty of Science, University of Malaya (as the publishers), you will be informed. It is requested that any changes to your contact details (especially e-mail addresses) are made known.</li> </ul> <p> </p> <p><strong> Copyright: Role and responsibility of the Author(s)</strong></p> <ul> <li>In the event of the manuscript to be published in the<em> Malaysian Journal of Science</em> contains materials copyrighted to others prior, it is the responsibility of current author(s) to obtain written permission from the copyright owner or owners.</li> <li>This written permission should be submitted with the proof-copy of the manuscript to be published in the <em>Malaysian Journal of Science</em> </li> </ul> <p> </p> (Prof. Dr. Wan Haliza binti Abd Majid) (MJS Secretariat) Sun, 31 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0800 OJS 60 APPLICATION OF BENTHIC MACROINVERTEBRATES AS POTENTIAL BIO-INDICATORS IN MALAYSIAN'S RIVERS: GAP AND BIBLIOMETRIC ANALYSES <p>The literature on reliable indices, suitable bio-indicators, taxonomic level, frequency of measurements, and replications on benthic macroinvertebrates remains scarce in Malaysia. In addition, no review study was conducted using bibliometric analysis related to this discipline. Thus, this review aimed at gap and bibliometric analysis of publications on benthic macroinvertebrates as potential biological indicators. Sixty-six relevant scientific research papers from 2011 to 2022 were selected from the different databases. Then, descriptive and inferential statistical analyses were performed to assess the most reliable potential bio-indicators for river assessment and monitoring. Visualized statistics regarding bibliographic coupling analysis of authors, journal proceedings, and organizations were analyzed. The findings revealed that publications on invertebrates had no significant relationship in the last ten years (r = 0.241; p &gt; 0.05). Most publications on macroinvertebrates in Malaysian rivers were found in the Scopus database (53.57%). Therefore, research articles must be published in journals included in the Journal Citation Report (JCR) to improve their quality further. Besides, benthic macroinvertebrates are commonly identified only up to the family level (47%) due to incomplete tropical benthic macroinvertebrates identification keys. As such, using environmental DNA methods with the power of next-generation sequencing has come in handy in bio-indicator species identification. Among the potential bio-indicators found in Malaysian rivers are Chironomidae (9.11%), Baetidae (8.87%), and Hydropsychidae (8.62%). Based on the approaches utilized in analyzing benthic macroinvertebrates as bio-indicators, in-depth research such as bioassay and toxicology tests is necessary to realize the potential bio-indicators fully. Many studies focused on recreational rivers in Peninsular Malaysia. Therefore, research studies would be expanded to urban rivers and rivers in Sabah and Sarawak. Also, to overcome the limitation of the single biotic index, developing a multimetric index to evaluate the water quality by selecting many river basins is essential. Bibliographic analysis showed that the Institute for Tropical Biology and Conservation, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, made the greatest total link strength. The Serangga Journal published the highest number of research articles. Finally, utilizing advanced technologies is recommended to address Malaysia's lack of potential bio-indicator studies.</p> Nadeesha Dilani Hettige, Rohasliney Hashim, Ahmad Abas Kutty Copyright (c) 2024 Malaysian Journal of Science Sun, 31 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0800 SYNTHESIS AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF ACETAMINOPHEN AND IBUPROFEN METAL COMPLEXES OR DERIVATIVES: A REVIEW <p>We reviewed scientific literature on the synthesis of acetaminophen and ibuprofen, as well as their derivatives and biological properties. The synthesis of acetaminophen involves the acetylation of 4-aminophenol and acetic anhydride, while ibuprofen is synthesised by reacting isobutyl benzene and acetic anhydride in four continuous reaction stages, which are Friedel-Crafts acylation, carbonyl reduction, chloride substitution, and Grignard reaction. To obtain their derivatives, modifications have been made either by complexing the main structure of the drug compound with metal elements or adding certain desired moieties, such as thiourea, amide, ammonium, halogen, silicon, and 1,3,4-oxadiazole. Ibuprofen and acetaminophen have been recognised as effective painkillers and anti-inflammatories. Recently, their derivatives have been implicated in a variety of biological effects. The biological activities of acetaminophen and ibuprofen derivatives have been reported to exhibit urease inhibition and inflammatory inhibition, as well as inhibit the proliferation of breast cancer cells MCF-7. Overall, this review article describes the synthesis of acetaminophen and ibuprofen derivatives, complete with their biological activities such as antimicrobial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, urease inhibitors, and anticancer.</p> Azni Izwati Hamdan, Dike Dandari Sukmana, Norsyafikah Asyilla Nordin Copyright (c) 2024 Malaysian Journal of Science Sun, 31 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0800 WATER TREATMENT USING NATURAL COAGULANT: A REVIEW ON THE POTENTIAL UTILISATION OF BANANA WASTE <p>The massive industrial and agricultural development in the past few years has increased the pollution level of water bodies. Several studies have concluded that the global depletion of freshwater resources will result in difficulties accessing clean water. Plant-based water treatment techniques have attracted great interest in the past few years due to their safety and cost-effectiveness compared with chemical-based techniques. Natural coagulants have been extensively studied in terms of the type of plant and the mechanism of coagulation. Banana is one of the most famous tropical fruits from the <em>Musa</em> genus in the Musaceae family. It is widely consumed in Malaysia, especially <em>Musa acuminata</em>, <em>Musa balbisiana</em>, and <em>Musa paradisiaca</em>, resulting in tremendous amounts of biomass residue, including peels, stems, and leaves, with high potential use for wastewater treatment applications. This review aims to highlight the advantages of natural coagulants and to discuss the potential use of different banana wastes in water treatment applications.</p> Abdassalam A. Azamzam, Abdalahafid J. Alabdi, Esam Bashir Yahya, Japareng Lalung, Mardiana Idayu Ahmad Copyright (c) 2024 Malaysian Journal of Science Sun, 31 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0800 PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF HERBAL SOAP MADE FROM AVERRHOA BILIMBI LEAF AND FLOS LONICERAE <p>Malaysian herbs, <em>Averrhoa Bilimbi</em>, and <em>Flos Lonicerae</em>, are widely known in traditional Chinese medicine. Both are used as natural remedies for jaundice treatment in newborns. Formulating herbal bath soap by the saponification method is proposed because newborn babies are poor feeders. Today, a lot of chemicals are used in soap production. Users will have a wide range of issues due to chemicals like parabens and triclosan. As a result, soap is made from herbs without chemicals. This herbal soap uses two herbs, <em>Averrhoa Bilimbi</em> leaf and <em>Flos Lonicerae</em>. Paper journals examining these herbs’ physicochemical properties are scarce in Malaysia. After the herbal soap has been successfully created, it will be examined for its physicochemical properties. The antioxidant activity and total phenolic content (TPC), of <em>Averrhoa Bilimbi</em> leaf extract and <em>Flos Lonicerae</em> extract were all tested. The antibacterial activity, heavy metal and pH tests were also validated the suitability of this herbal soap for skin application. According to the findings, <em>Averrhoa Bilimbi</em> leaf extract had a TPC value of 24.49 mg GAE/g compared to 4.96 mg GAE/g for <em>Flos Lonicerae</em> extract. <em>Averrhoa Bilimbi</em> leaf required a slightly higher concentration of 0.0588 g/mL extract to inhibit 50% of the DPPH assay compared to <em>Flos Lonicerae</em> plant extract, which required 0.0315 g/mL. Since there was no evidence of any bacterial growth, the herbal soap was effective against all the tested bacterial strains. The heavy metal test showed the soap does not contain any lead, mercury or arsenic and exhibits a pH value which close to the range for suitable skin application.</p> SITI NURUL 'AIN HJ ZAITON, HAIRUL AMIZA AZMAN, NORHAFINI HAMBALI, MUNIRAH ONN, SAIFUL NAJMEE MOHAMAD, MOHD HAIKAL MUSTAFA Copyright (c) 2024 Malaysian Journal of Science Sun, 31 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0800 ASSESSING LOCAL PORE WATER VELOCITY ALONG PREFERENTIAL FLOW IN EARTHEN DAM USING SALT TRACER <p>The local pore water velocity along the preferential flow path signifies the hydraulic parameter responsible for erosion within an earthen dam. This study introduces an empirical approach to ascertain the local pore water velocity within the earth dam's leakage zones by monitoring the travel time of the salt tracer through the corresponding electric potential anomalies in the ground. The alignment of electric potential anomalies with the movement of the salt tracer plume over time was confirmed through experiments on a physical model coupled with numerical simulations. The pore water velocity, calculated based on the location of the maximum electric potential anomaly, demonstrated excellent agreement with the experimental value, with an error of under 6%. For illustrative purposes, a field-scale salt tracer test was conducted at a leaking earthen dam in Vietnam. The tracer breakthrough curve originating from the leakage point revealed that the seepage water's travel time is approximately 40 days. The results of electric potential anomalies over time indicate that the pathway of seepage flow from upstream to the leakage point forms a horizontal V-shape, with the local pore water velocity ranging from 1.7 to 9.9x10<sup>-5</sup> m/s. These local pore water velocities are subsequently compared with the critical seepage velocity to assess in-situ information regarding the internal erosion status of the target dam.</p> Huong Huynh Thi Thu , Son Le Van, Hieu Tran Trong, Luan Phan Thi, Phung Vuong Duc, Hai Lai Viet Copyright (c) 2024 Malaysian Journal of Science Sun, 31 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0800 BACTERIAL CELLULOSE INCORPORATED ZINC PHOSPHATE NANOCOMPOSITE FOR ANTIBACTERIAL AGENT AND AIR PARTICULATE MATTER FILTRATION <p>This study investigates the synthesis and the antibacterial properties of bacterial cellulose (BC) incorporated zinc phosphate nanocomposite-mediated dragon fruit extract (BC-ZP-DF). The composite was prepared by a three-step process that involved bacterial cellulose (BC), zinc phosphate (ZP), and nanocomposite BC-ZP synthesis. BC was prepared by fermenting coconut water with the components of ammonium sulfate, acetic acid, and Acetobacter xylinum culture. Zinc phosphate was made through the green synthesis method by reacting zinc nitrate and diammonium hydrogen phosphate using a sensitizer agent from red dragon fruit peel extract (DF) with volume variations of 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 mL. The composite was prepared by immersing BC with zinc phosphate. Phase crystallinity, functional group, and morphology of the samples were characterized using XRD, FTIR, and SEM. It was found that the nanocomposite was constructed by the nano green of zinc phosphate in the form of a hopeite structure with antibacterial PO43- and OH functional groups. Morphological analysis using SEM revealed that the nanocomposites contained various small powder grains. Based on the FTIR spectrum, XRD pattern, and surface morphology of composite film, the incorporation of zinc phosphate in the BC framework was confirmed. The antibacterial activity tests of nanocomposite films using Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria revealed that the nanocomposite was highly effective in inhibiting both bacteria, and the nanocomposite BC-ZP-DF10 film had the strongest inhibition. The results of the air filter test exhibited that the composition was efficient on all films with the highest percent of efficiency (%E) of 90.10%.</p> Nurhidayah Nurhidayah, La Ode Ahmad Nur - Ramadhan, Abdul Haris Watoni, Laode Abdul Kadir, Muhammad Daffa Rahmatullah, Cindy Agriningsih Haruna Copyright (c) 2024 Malaysian Journal of Science Sun, 31 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0800 GROUNDWATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT IN THE RIVER ATBARA ALLUVIAL SEDIMENTS, EASTERN SUDAN <p>According to the standard rates for water testing, 45 wells were sampled and analyzed to evaluate and assess the groundwater chemistry, classify the hydrochemical facies, and identify the sources of salinity in the study area. The main constituents determined included Sodium, Potassium, Chloride, Sulfate, Magnesium, Calcium, Nitrate, and Bicarbonate. Electrical conductivity, Total Dissolved Solids, Total and Excess Alkalinity, and pH were measured on-site during field trips. Using Piper's diagram, chemical information was utilized to identify the groundwater’s chemical facies. Despite most chemical concentrations being within the Sudanese Standards and Metrology Organization (SSMO) and World Health Organization (WHO) standard limits, salinity hazards were observed in the middle part of the study area, such as in Shaoat Sherg, Almugatah Shreg, and Umm Oud villages, attributed to the concentration of sodium and chloride in basaltic rocks. The dissolved solids in the study area ranged between 200 to 800 mg/L. The values of calcium ranged between 6.4 to 90 mg/L. The magnesium ion concentration ranged between 4.8 and 90 mg/L. The sodium concentration ranged between 7 and 420 mg/L. The concentration of chloride ranged between 6 and 1098 mg/L. Potassium ranged between 1.2 and 46 mg/L. The concentration of bicarbonate ranged between 78 and 793 mg/L. The sulfate concentration ranged between 0.5 and 508 mg/L. The nitrate (NO₃⁻) concentration was found to be very small. Based on Piper’s diagram, the samples resulted in 60% being mixed groundwater type and 40% being Na-HCO₃, Na-Cl, and Ca-Mg-HCO₃ groundwater types. Most samples were deemed good for human and agricultural use. Only nine were found to be above the recommended values, with reference to SSMO (2002) and WHO (2008) standards.</p> Khalid Nayl, Adill Bala Magboul Elkrail, Abdalla Elsheikh, Hago Ali Hago Copyright (c) 2024 Malaysian Journal of Science Sun, 31 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0800 AN EFFECTIVE COMPUTATIONAL SCHEME FOR SOLVING VARIOUS MATHEMATICAL FRACTIONAL DIFFERENTIAL MODELS VIA NON-DYADIC HAAR WAVELETS <p>The Non-dyadic Haar wavelet (Haar scale-3) collocation approach is used in this article to generate numerical solutions of fractional differential equations. The nonlinear fractional ordinary differential equations are linearized using the Quasilinearisation technique. The Haar scale-3 wavelet approach works on transforming the set of differential calculations into a set of linear algebraic equations. The reliability of the numerical solution can be improved by raising the degree of resolution, and error analysis can be done. The numerical examples are solved to test the method's simplicity and flexibility. The outcomes of numerical examples are compatible with the exact solution and provide better results than previous results existing in literature. This means that the procedure used here is consistent, reliable, and convenient to use.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Ratesh Kumar, Jaya Gupta Copyright (c) 2024 Malaysian Journal of Science Sun, 31 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0800 INVESTIGATE THE PROPERTIES OF DIFFERENT IRRADIATED STARCH BIOPLASTIC FOR PACKAGING APPLICATION <p>Plastics become the most favourite use among society due to its own characteristics in aspect of barrier properties and strength, we are able to get them anywhere, plus they are cheap, resistible with water and very flexible. Bioplastic produced for the rescue of our environment health. This study aims to determine wettability, contact angle and polymer chemical properties by comparing between pure starch and mixed starches bioplastic with different presence of plasticizer. Materials that will be used in constant amount were distilled water and glycerol. Others will be manipulating variable by the type of presence of starch like corn, potato and rice or maybe mixture of two starches Samples will undergo characterization test such as tensile and elongation test, water contact angle, FTIR analysis, topography using AFM, moisture content test and biodegradability test. When it comes to industrial use, gamma radiation and electron beams are generally involved. The reason for gamma radiation is because gamma rays are extreme in penetration and Cobalt-60 mainly used and often for sterilization purpose. Most of bioplastics with presence of citric acid as addition of plasticizer came out with high contact angle and could achieve hydrophobicity level. Potato and corn-rice bioplastic tend to have low moisture content. Meanwhile, corn bioplastic undergone faster degradation, with 80.17%. Potato-rice with presence of citric acid lead tensile test with 4.095MPa. However, for elongation case, potato with presence of sorbitol lead with 34.57%. From FTIR analysis, functional group of normal polymeric OH stretch and C-H stretch of methylene group were found at wavenumber of 3280-3300 /cm and of 2920- 2935/cm respectively. Through FTIR analysis, corn-rice with presence of citric acid bioplastic were chosen to undergo AFM to survey roughness in case to determine crosslinking might happen, the different average roughness between pre-irradiated and post-irradiatd samples is 8.82 nm.</p> Nurin Najwa Rohidi, Siti Amira Othman Copyright (c) 2024 Malaysian Journal of Science Sun, 31 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0800