Malaysian Journal of Science <p style="text-align: justify;">Malaysian Journal of Science (MJS) is the official peer-reviewed open access journal of the <a href="">Faculty of Science, University of Malaya</a>. Effective from year 2020 onwards, the frequency of regular issues publication is three times a year. MJS is indexed in Scopus, EMBASE, Compendex, GEOBASE, EMBiology, Elsevier BIOBASE, FLUIDEX ,World Textiles, CAB Abstracts, Chemical Abstracts Service Database and ASEAN Citation Index (ACI).</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">MJS is a reputable journal with a growing number of audience, which focuses on current developments in all disciplines of science. The journal publishes original articles, review articles, short communications and case reports that are of importance to the scientific community. </p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>eISSN : 2600-8688<br /></strong><strong><strong>Print ISSN : 1394-3065<br /></strong></strong><strong><strong>Publisher : Faculty of Science, University of Malaya</strong></strong> </p> Faculty of Science, University of Malaya en-US Malaysian Journal of Science 1394-3065 <p><strong>Transfer of Copyrights</strong></p> <ul> <li><strong> </strong>In the event of publication of the manuscript entitled <strong>[INSERT MANUSCRIPT TITLE AND REF NO.] </strong>in the <em>Malaysian Journal of Science</em>, I hereby transfer copyrights of the manuscript title, abstract and contents to the <em>Malaysian Journal of Science</em> and the Faculty of Science, University of Malaya (as the publisher) for the full legal term of copyright and any renewals thereof throughout the world in any format, and any media for communication.</li> </ul> <p> </p> <p><strong>Conditions of Publication</strong></p> <ul> <li><strong> </strong>I hereby state that this manuscript to be published is an original work, unpublished in any form prior and I have obtained the necessary permission for the reproduction (or am the owner) of any images, illustrations, tables, charts, figures, maps, photographs and other visual materials of whom the copyrights is owned by a third party.</li> <li>This manuscript contains no statements that are contradictory to the relevant local and international laws or that infringes on the rights of others.</li> <li>I agree to indemnify the <em>Malaysian Journal of Science</em> and the Faculty of Science, University of Malaya (as the publisher) in the event of any claims that arise in regards to the above conditions and assume full liability on the published manuscript.</li> </ul> <p> </p> <p><strong>Reviewer’s Responsibilities</strong></p> <ul> <li>Reviewers must treat the manuscripts received for reviewing process as confidential. It must not be shown or discussed with others without the authorization from the editor of MJS.</li> <li>Reviewers assigned must not have conflicts of interest with respect to the original work, the authors of the article or the research funding.</li> <li>Reviewers should judge or evaluate the manuscripts objective as possible. The feedback from the reviewers should be express clearly with supporting arguments.</li> <li>If the assigned reviewer considers themselves not able to complete the review of the manuscript, they must communicate with the editor, so that the manuscript could be sent to another suitable reviewer.</li> </ul> <p> </p> <p><strong>Copyright: Rights of the Author(s)</strong></p> <ul> <li>Effective 2007, it will become the policy of the Malaysian Journal of Science (published by the Faculty of Science, University of Malaya) to obtain copyrights of all manuscripts published. This is to facilitate:<br />(a) Protection against copyright infringement of the manuscript through copyright breaches or piracy<strong>. <br /></strong>(b) Timely handling of reproduction requests from authorized third parties that are addressed directly to the Faculty of Science, University of Malaya.</li> <li>As the author, you may publish the fore-mentioned manuscript, whole or any part thereof, provided acknowledgement regarding copyright notice and reference to first publication in the <em>Malaysian Journal of Science</em> and Faculty of Science, University of Malaya (as the publishers) are given.<br />You may produce copies of your manuscript, whole or any part thereof, for teaching purposes or to be provided, on individual basis, to fellow researchers.</li> <li>You may include the fore-mentioned manuscript, whole or any part thereof, electronically on a secure network at your affiliated institution, provided acknowledgement regarding copyright notice and reference to first publication in the <em>Malaysian Journal of Science</em> and Faculty of Science, University of Malaya (as the publishers) are given.</li> <li>You may include the fore-mentioned manuscript, whole or any part thereof, on the World Wide Web, provided acknowledgement regarding copyright notice and reference to first publication in the <em>Malaysian Journal of Science</em> and Faculty of Science, University of Malaya (as the publishers) are given.</li> <li>In the event that your manuscript, whole or any part thereof, has been requested to be reproduced, for any purpose or in any form approved by the <em>Malaysian Journal of Science</em> and Faculty of Science, University of Malaya (as the publishers), you will be informed. It is requested that any changes to your contact details (especially e-mail addresses) are made known.</li> </ul> <p> </p> <p><strong> Copyright: Role and responsibility of the Author(s)</strong></p> <ul> <li>In the event of the manuscript to be published in the<em> Malaysian Journal of Science</em> contains materials copyrighted to others prior, it is the responsibility of current author(s) to obtain written permission from the copyright owner or owners.</li> <li>This written permission should be submitted with the proof-copy of the manuscript to be published in the <em>Malaysian Journal of Science</em> </li> </ul> <p> </p> A THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK FOR IMPROVING HAND HYGIENE COMPLIANCE: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW <p>Evidence before the COVID-19 outbreak indicated that healthcare workers’ hand hygiene compliance had been low. Although hand hygiene compliance has improved during the COVID-19 pandemic, it's necessary to plan a tailored and targeted hand hygiene promotion strategy to maintain changes. Therefore, the aim of this review was to assess experimental theory-based studies on hand hygiene improvement in order to identify the best theory and constructs with higher effectiveness. The study design is a systematic review. The search strategy was developed, and Medline (PubMed), ProQuest, Web of Knowledge, Scopus, Cochrane Trials, and Science Direct databases were searched up to May 26, 2020, without time limitation. Review Manager 5.1 software was used to determine the risk of bias. Irrelevant articles, non-original articles, non-interventional studies, and those that lacked a theoretical framework were excluded. A total of eight articles were entered into the final analysis, including three randomized clinical trials and five quasi-experimental studies. In these studies, theories were reported at intrapersonal, interpersonal, and organizational levels. Moreover, some studies evaluated multifaceted interventions involving various levels of influence. Finally, we suggested an integrated multi-level approach to promote hand hygiene (IMAPH) with a comprehensive theoretical framework for designing interventions.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>:&nbsp;&nbsp; Healthcare workers, Hand hygiene, Theory-based intervention, Systematic review, Multi theory model</p> Mohadeseh Motamed-Jahromi Mohammad Hossein Kaveh Copyright (c) 2022 Malaysian Journal of Science 2022-06-15 2022-06-15 30 46 10.22452/mjs.vol41no2.3 COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF DAMD, ISSR AND SCOT MOLECULAR MARKERS ON CRYOPRESERVED LUDISIA DISCOLOR AXILLARY BUDS <p>Ludisia discolor, a jewel orchid is the only species found under its genus (Ludisia). This wild orchid is well known for its striking foliage and its medicinal benefits. Since the population of this valuable species is becoming scarce, therefore protecting this orchid is crucial. Cryopreservation is a practicable long-term germplasm conservation approach. The genetic material is stored at freezing temperature using liquid nitrogen. In this study, V cryo-plate method was developed using L. discolor axillary buds using optimum conditions. For the screening of somaclonal variation, 3 weeks old treated (cryopreserved and non-cryopreserved) explants were utilized in comparison with the stock cultures as a control. The genetic stability was assessed using a total of twenty (20) DAMD, twenty (20) ISSR, and ten (10) SCoT molecular markers. The somaclonal variation detected in cryopreserved explant using DAMD, ISSR, and SCoT molecular markers were 12.5, 4.17, and 10.53% respectively. However, somaclonal variation was also detected in non-cryopreserved explants using DAMD, ISSR, and SCoT at 6.15, 5.77, and 10%, respectively. Hence, SCoT was chosen to be precise than the other two molecular markers (DAMD and ISSR).</p> Sreeramanan Subramaniam Kirutika Selva Rajan Hazirah Burkhan Bee Lynn Chew Suganthi Appalasamy Ranjetta Poobathy Copyright (c) 2022 Malaysian Journal of Science 2022-06-15 2022-06-15 1 15 10.22452/mjs.vol41no2.1 FREQUENTIST AND BAYESIAN ZERO-INFLATED REGRESSION MODELS ON INSURANCE CLAIM FREQUENCY: A COMPARISON STUDY USING MALAYSIA’S MOTOR INSURANCE DATA <p>A no-claim event is a common scenario in insurance and the abundance of no-claim events can be described adequately by zero-inflated models. The zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) and zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB) regression models from frequentist and Bayesian approaches are considered for fitting to Malaysia’s motor insurance data. The results from the fittings are compared using mean absolute deviation and mean squared prediction error. The data is categorized into three claim types and the factors considered for regression modelling are coverage type, vehicle age, vehicle cubic capacity and vehicle make. The results from the fittings showed that the ZIP model from both approaches provide better fit than the ZINB model. Also, both ZIP and ZINB models from the Bayesian approach provide better fitting than the frequentist models. Therefore, Bayesian ZIP is the best model in explaining motor insurance claim frequency in Malaysia for all three claim types. From the best regression models, vehicle age, coverage type and vehicle make are the most influential factors in determining the frequency of claim for each claim type. Vehicle age and coverage type have positive effect on the frequency of claim whereas the vehicle make has negative effect on the frequency of claim.</p> Razik Ridzuan Mohd Tajuddin Noriszura Ismail Copyright (c) 2022 Malaysian Journal of Science 2022-06-15 2022-06-15 16 29 10.22452/mjs.vol41no2.2 STUDY THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BREMSSTRAHLUNG DOSE RATE AND THE ENERGY OF BETA RAY FOR DIFFERENT TYPES OF SHIELD <p>The dose rate for bremsstrahlung radiation from beta particles with energy (1.710) MeV and (2.28) MeV which comes from (<sup>32</sup>P and <sup>90</sup>Y) beta source respectively have been calculated through six materials (polyethylene, wood, aluminum, iron, tungsten and lead) for first shielding material with thickness (x=1) mm which are putting between beta sources and second shield (polyethylene, aluminum and lead) with thickness (1, 2 &amp;4) mm have been calculated. The distance between beta source and second shield is constant (D=1) cm.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; This dose rate was found by program called Rad Pro Calculator (version 3.26). The results of dose rate of beta particles were plotted as a function to the atomic number (Z) for first shield materials for each type and each thickness of second shield and each beta energy.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The results of bremsstrahlung dose rate show clearly that this value increased with increased beta particle energy and the atomic number for second shield material. While bremsstrahlung dose rate reduced with rise of the width of second shield.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Ahmed Mkhaiber Naz Jarallah Copyright (c) 2022 Malaysian Journal of Science 2022-06-15 2022-06-15 47 54 10.22452/mjs.vol41no2.4 EFFECT TWO ZERO DISPERSION WAVELENGTHS AND RAMAN SCATTERING IN THE THIRD-ORDER SOLITON OF SOLID CORE PHOTONIC CRYSTAL FIBERS TO PRODUCE SUPERCONTINUUM GENERATION <p><strong>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; </strong>&nbsp; Photonic crystal fibers (<em>PCFs</em>)&nbsp; which consist of dielectric materials are a don't ever and an ever field in more modern application. The <em>Split-Step Fourier method (SSFM)</em> was used in this work to create a fiber photonic crystal, which was suggested and validated using a <em>Matlab software</em> .The impact of two -zero-&nbsp;dispersion on the Soliton in solid core photonic crystal fibers&nbsp;has been studied by investigating the interplay between <em>Raman effect</em> and second- order- dispersion. It has been discovered that the proposed photonic crystal fibers two –zero- dispersion wavelengths (<em>TZDW</em>) can be used to effectively tailor the properties of third order soliton. Many current&nbsp; applications, including medical and industrial, rely on spectral expansion. In addition,&nbsp; soliton has an important&nbsp; role in modern communication systems.</p> Mohammed Altaie Copyright (c) 2022 Malaysian Journal of Science 2022-06-15 2022-06-15 55 68 10.22452/mjs.vol41no2.5 INVESTIGATING THE GROUND ENERGY DISTRIBUTION OF PARTICLES PRODUCED IN EXTENSIVE AIR SHOWERS <p>The energy spectra of particle arrive the ground is a significant observable in the analysis of extensive air showers (EAS). The energy distribution at ground is studied for (<sup>12</sup>C,<sup>56</sup>Fe, p, and <sup>28</sup>Si ) primary particles with high primary energies (10<sup>17</sup>, 10<sup>18</sup>, 10<sup>19</sup> and 10<sup>20</sup>) eV with two zenith angles 0<sup>o </sup>and 30<sup>o</sup>.&nbsp; 960 EAS showers are simulated using Monte-Carlo program Aires version (19.04.00) with the models of hadronic interaction (EPOS-LHC, QGSJET-II-04, and Sibyll2.3c). In this study we investigated various secondary particles that arrive the ground and deposit a portion of their energy on ground detectors. The analyzed results show that the distinction in the energy distribution at ground is bigger for primary proton than carbon, iron nuclei, and silicon at higher energies and vertical showers.</p> Itab Wajid Ahmed Al-Rubaiee Copyright (c) 2022 Malaysian Journal of Science 2022-06-15 2022-06-15 69 80 10.22452/mjs.vol41no2.6 INVESTIGATION OF FAST NEURON ATTENUATION COEFFICIENTS FOR SOME IRAQI BUILDING MATERIALS <p>This research aims to improve the radiation shielding properties of polymer-based materials by mixing PVC with locally available building materials. Specifically, two key parameters of fast neutron attenuation (removal cross-section and half-value layer) were studied for composite materials comprising PVC reinforced with common building materials (cement, sand, gypsum and marble) in different proportions (10%, 30% and 50% by weight). To assess their effectiveness as protection against fast neutrons, the macroscopic neutron cross-section was calculated for each composite. Results show that neutron cross-section values are significantly affected by the reinforcement ratios, and that the composite material PVC + 50% gypsum is an effective shield against fast neutrons.</p> Ahmed Mkhaiber Auday Al-Bayati Itab Fadhil Copyright (c) 2022 Malaysian Journal of Science 2022-06-15 2022-06-15 80 89 10.22452/mjs.vol41no2.7 MICROFACIES OF LATE PLEISTOCENE TRAVERTINE DEPOSITS IN JORDAN <p>The Late Pleistocene travertine outcrops from Deir Alla, Suwayma, and Az Zara were investigated, and their microfacies were identified. The microfacies of the Deir Alla travertines include micrite and spar groundmass, shrubs, crystalline crusts, a stromatolite-like structure, peloids, and cements. Shrub travertine includes spar calcite-coated stems with probably microbial micritic clumps. The crystalline crust travertine displays an alternation of micrite and sparite laminae. The micritic laminae are dark-coloured. Bundles of radial spar crystals are associated locally with micritic groundmass. The crystalline crust developed where biogenic activity is limited. Peloidal microfacies are less than 0.25 mm in diameter, cryptocrystalline, pale-dark green in colour, elliptical to spherical in shape, and usually associated with microorganisms. The microfacies of the Suwayma and Az Zara travertines include crystalline calcite rhombs and other composite scalenohedral crystals. They occur as small anhedral-subhedral crystals, monocrystalline to some polycrystalline, corroded, subrounded, and mainly coated with iron oxide and/or clay minerals. Peloids, ooids, and oncoids are common. They are dark-green coloured, cryptocrystalline to microcrystalline carbonates of spherical and ellipsoidal shape with less than 1 mm in diameter. Rich flora travertines include reed and paper-thin rafts with leaf impressions encrusted on moss cushions. The flora observed in the upper part of the Suwayma section was identified as charophyte oospores (gyrogonites)<em>. </em>A few grains of quartz are present as small subhedral-euhedral crystals, monocrystalline, corroded, rounded, and mainly coated with iron oxide. The iron is irregularly distributed among the laminae and voids and is occasionally replaced by carbonates. The described macrophyte encrustation structures probably represent algae, cyanobacteria, or bryophytes. All samples of micrite and spar calcite appear as groundmass.</p> Issa Mohammad Makhlouf Khalil M Ibrahim Ali R El Naqah Sana’ M. Al-Thawabteh Copyright (c) 2022 Malaysian Journal of Science 2022-06-15 2022-06-15 90 117 10.22452/mjs.vol41no2.8