Main Article Content

Rodiah binti Hassan
Prof Jamilah Bakar
Dr Norhayati Hussain
Prof Kharidah Muhamad


This study explores the physicochemical, composition, and functional properties of the Borassus flabellifer mesocarp powder following treatment with naringinase. The debittered mesocarp powder (DMP) has good water-holding (9.4 g/g), swelling (7.8 g/g), and wettability (12.3 s) capacities. Naringinase reduced 33.2% of the DMP particle size, causing an increase in surface area. A larger surface area traps more water/oil molecules, contributing to a higher water/oil capacity. However, the solubility, swelling, and wettability of DMP were markedly decreased following naringinase treatment. Nonetheless, although DMP has higher saponin, phenol, tannin, and DPPH activity contents than the control, it has decreased ferrous-reducing activity.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
HASSAN, R. B., Bakar, J., Hussain, N. ., & Muhamad , K. . (2023). DEBITTERING OF Borassus flabellifer MESOCARP USING NARINGINASE: IMPACT ON THE COMPOSITION, PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS, AND FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES. Malaysian Journal of Science, 42(3), 34–44.
Original Articles


Abioye, V. F., Akande, E. A., & Aluko, B. O. (2014). Effects of Different Local Debittering Methods on Some Chemical Components and Antioxidants in Bitter Leaf (Vernonia amygdalina). International Journal of Research in Chemistry and Environment (IJRCE), 4(1), 96-101.

Aiyegroro, O.A., & Okoh, A.I. (2010). Preliminary phytochemical screening and in vitro antioxidant activities of aqueous extract of Helichrysum longifolium DC. BMC complementary and Alternative Medicine, 10: 21

Al-Sheraji, S. H., Ismail, A., Manap, M. Y., Mustafa, S., Yusof, R. M., & Hassan, F. A. (2011). Functional properties and characterization of dietary fiber from Mangifera pajang Kort. fruit pulp. Journal of Agricultural and Food chemistry, 59(8), 3980-3985.

AOAC International – Association of Analytical Communities. (2000). Official methods of analysis of AOAC international (17th ed.). Gaithersburg, MD, USA: AOAC International.

AOAC. (2005). In W. Horwitz, & G.W. Latimer (Eds.), Official methods of analysis of AOAC International 18th ed, p. 2200. Gaithersburg: AOAC.

Ariyasena, D. D., Jansz, E. R., Abeysekera, A. M. (2001). Some studies directed at increasing the potential use of palmyrah (Borassus flabellifer L) fruit pulp. Journal of Science of Food and Agriultural, 81: 1347-1352.

Asma, F.Z., Rodiah, M.H., & Aziah, M.Y. 2016. Microwave-assisted extraction of natural colorant extracted from mesocarp and exocarp of Cocos nucifera (coconut palm). European Journal of Biotechnology and Bioscience, 4(4):1-5.

Berlin, A., Gilkes, N., Kurabi, A., Bura, R., Tu, M., Kilburn, D., & Saddler, J. (2005). Weak lignin-binding enzymes. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, 121(1), 163-170.

Belscak-Cvitanovic, A., Benkovic, M., Komes, D., Bauman, I., Horzic, D., Dujmic, F., & Matijasec, M. (2010). Physical properties and bioactive constituents of powdered mixtures and drinks prepared with cocoa and various sweeteners. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 58(12), 7187-7195.

Benković, M., Tušek, A. J., Belščak-Cvitanović, A., Lenart, A., Domian, E., Komes, D., & Bauman, I. (2015). Artificial neural network modelling of changes in physical and chemical properties of cocoa powder mixtures during agglomeration. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 64(1), 140-148.

Chandra, R. P., Ewanick, S. M., Chung, P. A., Au-Yeung, K., Del Rio, L., Mabee, W., & Saddler, J. N. (2009). Comparison of methods to assess the enzyme accessibility and hydrolysis of pretreated lignocellulosic substrates. Biotechnology letters, 31(8), 1217-1222.

Chau, C. F., & Huang, Y. L. (2003). Comparison of the chemical composition and physicochemical properties of different fibers prepared from the peel of Citrus sinensis L. Cv. Liucheng. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 51(9), 2615-2618.

Chaurasiya, A. K., Chakraborty, I., & Saha, J. (2014). Value addition of Palmyra palm and studies on the storage life. Journal of food science and technology, 51(4), 768-773.

Chu, Y. H., Chang, C. L., & Hsu, H. F. (2000). Flavonoid content of several vegetables and their antioxidant activity. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 80(5), 561-566.

De Moraes Crizel, T., Jablonski, A., de Oliveira Rios, A., Rech, R., & Flôres, S. H. (2013). Dietary fiber from orange byproducts as a potential fat replacer. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 53(1), 9-14.

Debenthini, S., Brasathe, J., & Sarananda, K. H. (2014, December). Antioxidant Properties of Palmyrah (Borassus flabellifer L.) Fruit Pulp and Effect of Heat Treatment on Bitterness. In Proceedings of the Faculty of Agriculture Undergraduate Research Symposium.

Elleuch, M., Bedigian, D., Roiseux, O., Besbes, S., & Blecker, C. (2011). Dietary fibre and fibre-rich by-products of food processing : Characterisation , technological functionality and commercial applications : A review. Food Chemistry, 124(2), 411–421.

Eleazu, C.O., Eleazu, K.C., Awa, E & Chukwuma, S.C. 2012. Comparative study of the phytochemical composition of the leaves of five Nigerian medicinal plants. Journal of Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Research, 3(2):42-46.

Emojorho, E. E., & Akubor, P. I. (2016). Effect of Debittering Methods on the Minerals, and Phytochemical Properties of Orange (Citrus Sinensis) Seeds Flour. IOSR Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology, 10(9), 134-139.

Figuerola F., Hurtado M.L., Estévez A.M., Chiffelle I. & Asenjo F. (2005). Fibre concentrates from apple pomace and citrus peel as potential fibre sources for food enrichment. Food Chemistry, 91(3), 395-401.

Figueroa-Espinoza, M. C., Zafimahova, A., Alvarado, P. G. M., Dubreucq, E., & Poncet-Legrand, C. (2015). Grape seed and apple tannins: Emulsifying and antioxidant properties. Food chemistry, 178, 38-44.

Fuentes-alventosa, J. M., Rodríguez-gutiérrez, G., Jaramillo-carmona, S., & Espejo-calvo, J. A. (2009). Effect of extraction method on chemical composition and functional characteristics of high dietary fibre powders obtained from asparagus by-products. Food Chemistry, 113(2), 665–671.

Garau, M. C., Simal, S., Rosselló, C., & Femenia, A. (2007). Effect of air drying temperature on physico-chemical properties of dietary fiber and antioxidant capacity of orange (Citrus aurantium cv. Canoneta) by-products. Food Chemistry, 104, 1014–1024

García Herrera, P., Sánchez-Mata, M. C., & Cámara, M. 2010. Nutritional characterization of tomato fiber as a useful ingredient for food industry. Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technology, 11(4):707–711.

Gelroth, J., & Ranhotra, G. S. (2001). Food uses of fiber. Food Science and Technology-New York-Marcel Dekker-, 435-452.

Ibrahim, A. H. (2009). Physico-chemical and Health-promoting Properties of Dietary Fibre Powder from Pink Guava By-products (Doctoral dissertation, Universiti Putra Malaysia).

Jansz, E. R., Nikawela, J. K., & Gooneratne, J. (1994). Studies on the bitter principle and debittering of Palmyrah fruit pulp. Journal of the Science and Food Agricultural 65:185-189.

Jansz, E. R., Wickremasekara, N., & Sumuduni, K. A. V. (2002). A review of the chemistry and biochemistry of seed shoot flour and fruit pulp of the palmyrah palm (Borassus flabellifer L). Journal of the National Science Foundation of Sri Lanka, 30(1-2).

Karaman, E., Yılmaz, E., & Tuncel, N. B. (2017). Physicochemical, microstructural and functional characterization of dietary fibers extracted from lemon, orange and grapefruit seeds press meals. Bioactive carbohydrates and dietary fibre, 11, 9-17.

Kelly, G. M., Mahony, J. A. O., Kelly, A. L., Huppertz, T., Kennedy, D., & Callaghan, D. J. O. (2015). Influence of protein concentration on surface composition and physico-chemical properties of spray-dried milk protein concentrate powders. International Dairy Journal, 51, 34–40.

Kondapalli, N., Sadineni, V., Variyar, P. S., Sharma, A., & Obulam, V. S. R. (2014). Impact of γ-irradiation on antioxidant capacity of mango (Mangifera indica L.) wine from eight Indian cultivars and the protection of mango wine against DNA damage caused by irradiation. Process Biochemistry, 49(11), 1819-1830.

Kumar, V. V. (2010). Comparative studies on inducers in the production of naringinase from Aspergillus niger MTCC 1344. African Journal of Biotechnology, 9(45), 7683-7686.

Kumar, R., Rajarajeshwari, N., & Narayana Swamy, V. B. (2012). Isolation and evaluation of Borassus flabellifer mucilage as a natural suspending agent. International Journal of PharmTech Research, 4(4), 1614–1630.

Langley-Evans, S. C. 2000. Antioxidant potential of green and black tea Lario, Y., Sendra, E., Garcıa-Pérez, J., Fuentes, C., Sayas-Barberá, E., 185

Lecumberri, E., Mateos, R., Izquierdo-Pulido, M., Rupérez, P., Goya, L., & Bravo, L. (2007). Dietary fibre composition, antioxidant capacity and physico-chemical properties of a fibre-rich product from cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.). Food chemistry, 104(3), 948-954.

López-Vargas, J. H., Fernández-López, J., Pérez-Álvarez, J. A., & Viuda-Martos, M. 2013. Chemical, physico-chemical, technological, antibacterial and antioxidant properties of dietary fiber powder obtained from yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis var. flavicarpa) co-products. Food Research International, 51(2), 756–763.

Martínez, R., Torres, P., Meneses, M. A., Figueroa, J. G., Pérez-Álvarez, J. A., & Viuda-Martos, M. (2012). Chemical, technological and in vitro antioxidant properties of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) co-products. Food Research International, 49(1), 39-45.

Mishra N & Chandra R. (2012). Development of functional biscuit from soy flour and rice bran. International Journal of Agricultural and Food Science, 2, 14-20.

Muñiz, P., Ortega, N., & Busto, M. D. (2011). Effect of enzymatic debittering on antioxidant capacity and protective role against oxidative stress of grapefruit juice in comparison with adsorption on exchange resin. Food Chemistry, 125(1), 158–163.

Nesbitt, M. (2005).The Cultural history of plants. Taylor & George Francis. 173.

Ni, H., Yang, Y. F., Chen, F., Ji, H. F., Yang, H., Ling, W., & Cai, H. N. (2014). Pectinase and naringinase help to improve juice production and quality from pummelo (Citrus grandis) fruit. Food Science and Biotechnology, 23(3), 739-746.

Nur Liyana Izyan, Z. (2014). Tensile and thermal properties of oil palm empty fruit bunch regenerated cellulose biocomposite films using ionic liquid (Doctoral dissertation, Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP)).

Obadoni, B. O., & Ochuko, P. O. 2001. Phytochemical studies and comparative efficacy of the crude extracts of some homeostatic plants in Edo and Delta States of Nigeria. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, 86: 2003-2008.

O’Shea, N., Ktenioudaki, A., Smyth, T.P., McLoughlin, P., Doran, L., Auty, M.A.E., Arendt, E., Gallagher, E. 2015. Physicochemical assessment of two fruit by-products as functional ingredients: Apple and orange pomace, Journal of Food Engineering, 153, 89-95.

Osundahunsi O. F., Fagbemi T. N., Kesselman E. & Shimoni E. (2003). Comparison of the physicochemical properties and pasting characteristics of flour and starch from red and white sweet potato cultivars. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 51(8), 2232-2236.

Peerajit, P., Chiewchan, N., & Devahastin, S. (2012). Effects of pretreatment methods on health-related functional properties of high dietary fibre powder from lime residues. Food Chemistry, 132(4), 1891–1898.

Peng, X., Ma, J., Cheng, K. W., Jiang, Y., Chen, F., & Wang, M. (2010). The effects of grape seed extract fortification on the antioxidant activity and quality attributes of bread. Food Chemistry, 119(1), 49-53.

Puri, M., Seth, M., Marwaha, S. S., & Kothari, R. M. (2001). Debittering of kinnow mandarin juice by covalently bound naringinase on hen egg white. Food Biotechnology, 15(1), 13-23.

Puri, M., Banerjee, A., & Banerjee, U. C. (2005). Optimization of process parameters for the production of naringinase by Aspergillus niger MTCC 1344. Process Biochemistry, 40(1), 195-201.

Puwastien P., Siong, T. E., Kantasubrata, J., Craven, G., Feliciano, R. R, & Judprasong, K. (2011). ASEAN Manual of Food Analysis 2011. Thailand: Institute of Nutrition, Mahidol University.

Radhakrisnan, I., Sampath, S. & Satishkumar, T. (2012). Optimization of medium composition for improving naringinase activity using response surface metodoloy. International Journal of Biotechnology and Research, 2: 29-36.

Raghavendra, S. N., Swamy, S. R., Rastogi, N. K., Raghavarao, K. S. M. S., Kumar, S., & Tharanathan, R. N. (2006). Grinding characteristics and hydration properties of coconut residue: A source of dietary fiber. Journal of Food Engineering, 72(3), 281-286.

Rawson, A., Hossain, M. B., Patras, A., Tuohy, M., & Brunton, N. (2013). Effect of boiling and roasting on the polyacetylene and polyphenol content of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) bulb. Food Research International, 50(2), 513-518.

Reddy, C. K., Suriya, M., Vidya, P. V., Vijina, K., & Haripriya, S. (2015). Effect of γ-irradiation on structure and physico-chemical properties of Amorphophallus paeoniifolius starch. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 79, 309-315.

Robertson, J. A., de Monredon, F. D., Dysseler, P., Guillon, F., Amado` , R., & Thibault, J.-F. (2000). Hydration properties of dietary fibre and resistant starch: a European collaborative study. Lebensmittel-Wis- senschaft und Technology, 33, 72–79

Sabiha-Hanim, S., Noor, M. A. M., & Rosma, A. 2011. Effect of autohydrolysis and enzymatic treatment on oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) frond fibres for xylose and xylooligosaccharides production. Bioresource Technology, 102(2):1234–1239.

Šamec, D., Maretić, M., Lugarić, I., Mešić, A., Salopek-Sondi, B., & Duralija, B. (2016). Assessment of the differences in the physical, chemical and phytochemical properties of four strawberry cultivars using principal component analysis. Food Chemistry, 194, 828-834.

Selani, M. M., Brazaca, S. G. C., dos Santos Dias, C. T., Ratnayake, W. S., Flores, R. A., & Bianchini, A. (2014). Characterisation and potential application of pineapple pomace in an extruded product for fibre enhancement. Food chemistry, 163, 23-30.

Thabrew, M. I. & Jansz, E. R. (2004). Nutritive importance of palmyrah products. Recent Research Development. Environmental Biology. 1: 43-60.

Thanusan, S., Tharmaratnam, G., & Priyantha, K. D. P. (2018). Physicochemical Evaluation in the Development of Palmyrah and Pineapple Mixed Fruit Toffee. Annals. Food Science and Technology, 19 (2). 244-249

Thivya, P., Durgadevi, M., & Jaganmohan, R. (2018). Effect of debittering on the physical and chemical properties of palmyrah young shoots flour. International Journal of Agriculture, Environment and Biotechnology, 11(4), 609-614.

Tosh, S. M., & Yada, S. (2010). Dietary fibres in pulse seeds and fractions: Characterization, functional attributes, and applications. Food Research International, 43(2), 450-460.

Tungland B. C. & Meyer D. (2002). Nondigestible oligo‐and polysaccharides (dietary fibre): their physiology and role in human health and food. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, 1(3), 90-109

Uluwaduge, D. I & Thillainathan, K. (2019). Palmyrah research in Sri Lanka: a way forward, ed. E.R. Jansz, pp. 11-51. Sri Lanka: University of Jaffna

Variyar, P. S., Limaye, A., & Sharma, A. (2004). Radiation-induced enhancement of antioxidant contents of soybean (Glycine max Merrill). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 52, 3385–3388.

Vignolles, M. L., Jeantet, R., Lopez, C., & Schuck, P. (2007). Free fat, surface fat and dairy powders: interactions between process and product. A review. Le Lait, 87(3), 187-236.

Vijaya kumara B, V. P., & Prasad KR, M. G. (2015). Physico-Chemical Properties of Palmyrah fruit Pulp (Borassus flabellifer L). Journal of Nutrition & Food Sciences, 05(05).

Wickramasekara, N. T., & Jansz, E. R. (2003). The range of steroidal saponins of palmyrah flour: could they contribute to toxic effect on consumers. Journal of Science EUSL, 3(1), 11-18.

Wong, P. Y. Y., & Kitts, D. D. (2003). A comparison of the buttermilk solids functional properties to nonfat dried milk, soy protein isolate, dried egg white, and egg yolk powders. Journal of Dairy Science, 86(3), 746-754.

Wuttipalakorn, P., Srichumpuang, W., & Chiewchan, N. (2009). Effects of pretreatment and drying on composition and bitterness of high-dietary-fiber powder from lime residues. Drying Technology, 27(1), 133-142.

Yi, T., Huang, X., Pan, S., & Wang, L. (2014). Physicochemical and functional properties of micronized jincheng orange by-products (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) dietary fiber and its application as a fat replacer in yogurt. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, 65(5), 565-572.

Zhou, X. L., Qian, Y. F., Zhou, Y. M., & Zhang, R. (2012). Effect of enzymatic extraction treatment on physicochemical properties, microstructure and nutrient composition of tartary buckwheat bran: A new source of antioxidant dietary fiber. In Advanced Materials Research (Vol. 396, pp. 2052-2059). Trans Tech Publications Ltd.

Zhu, Y., Dong, Y., Qian, X., Cui, F., Guo, Q., Zhou, X., & Xiong, Z. (2012). Effect of superfine grinding on antidiabetic activity of bitter melon powder. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 13(11), 14203-14218.

Zhu, Yunping, Jia, H., Xi, M., Li, J., Yang, L., & Li, X. (2017). Characterization of a naringinase from Aspergillus oryzae 11250 and its application in the debitterization of orange juice. Process Biochemistry, 62, 114–121.