Malaysian Journal of Science https://mjs.um.edu.my/index.php/MJS <p style="text-align: justify;">Malaysian Journal of Science (MJS), launched in 1972, is the official peer-reviewed open access journal of the&nbsp;<a href="https://fs.um.edu.my/">Faculty of Science, University of Malaya</a>.&nbsp;Effective from&nbsp;year 2020 onwards, the frequency of regular issues publication is&nbsp;three&nbsp;times a&nbsp;year; on&nbsp;every February, June and October. MJS is indexed in Scopus, EMBASE, Compendex, GEOBASE, EMBiology, Elsevier BIOBASE, FLUIDEX ,World Textiles, CAB Abstracts, Chemical Abstracts Service Database and ASEAN Citation Index (ACI).</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">MJS is a reputable journal with a growing number of audience, which focuses on current developments in all disciplines of science. The journal publishes original articles, review articles, short communications and case reports that are of importance to the scientific community.&nbsp;</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>eISSN&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;: 2600-8688<br></strong><strong><strong>Print ISSN&nbsp; &nbsp;: 1394-3065<br></strong></strong><strong><strong>Publisher&nbsp; &nbsp; : Faculty of Science, University of Malaya</strong></strong>&nbsp;</p> en-US <p><strong>Transfer of Copyrights</strong></p> <ul> <li><strong> </strong>In the event of publication of the manuscript entitled <strong>[INSERT MANUSCRIPT TITLE AND REF NO.] </strong>in the <em>Malaysian Journal of Science</em>, I hereby transfer copyrights of the manuscript title, abstract and contents to the <em>Malaysian Journal of Science</em> and the Faculty of Science, University of Malaya (as the publisher) for the full legal term of copyright and any renewals thereof throughout the world in any format, and any media for communication.</li> </ul> <p> </p> <p><strong>Conditions of Publication</strong></p> <ul> <li><strong> </strong>I hereby state that this manuscript to be published is an original work, unpublished in any form prior and I have obtained the necessary permission for the reproduction (or am the owner) of any images, illustrations, tables, charts, figures, maps, photographs and other visual materials of whom the copyrights is owned by a third party.</li> <li>This manuscript contains no statements that are contradictory to the relevant local and international laws or that infringes on the rights of others.</li> <li>I agree to indemnify the <em>Malaysian Journal of Science</em> and the Faculty of Science, University of Malaya (as the publisher) in the event of any claims that arise in regards to the above conditions and assume full liability on the published manuscript.</li> </ul> <p> </p> <p><strong>Copyright: Rights of the Author(s)</strong></p> <ul> <li>Effective 2007, it will become the policy of the Malaysian Journal of Science (published by the Faculty of Science, University of Malaya) to obtain copyrights of all manuscripts published. This is to facilitate:<br />(a) Protection against copyright infringement of the manuscript through copyright breaches or piracy<strong>. <br /></strong>(b) Timely handling of reproduction requests from authorized third parties that are addressed directly to the Faculty of Science, University of Malaya.<br /><br /></li> <li>As the author, you may publish the fore-mentioned manuscript, whole or any part thereof, provided acknowledgement regarding copyright notice and reference to first publication in the <em>Malaysian Journal of Science</em> and Faculty of Science, University of Malaya (as the publishers) are given.<br />You may produce copies of your manuscript, whole or any part thereof, for teaching purposes or to be provided, on individual basis, to fellow researchers.<br /><br /></li> <li>You may include the fore-mentioned manuscript, whole or any part thereof, electronically on a secure network at your affiliated institution, provided acknowledgement regarding copyright notice and reference to first publication in the <em>Malaysian Journal of Science</em> and Faculty of Science, University of Malaya (as the publishers) are given.<br /><br /></li> <li>You may include the fore-mentioned manuscript, whole or any part thereof, on the World Wide Web, provided acknowledgement regarding copyright notice and reference to first publication in the <em>Malaysian Journal of Science</em> and Faculty of Science, University of Malaya (as the publishers) are given.<br /><br /></li> <li>In the event that your manuscript, whole or any part thereof, has been requested to be reproduced, for any purpose or in any form approved by the <em>Malaysian Journal of Science</em> and Faculty of Science, University of Malaya (as the publishers), you will be informed. It is requested that any changes to your contact details (especially e-mail addresses) are made known.</li> </ul> <p> </p> <p><strong> </strong><strong>Copyright: Role and responsibility of the Author(s)</strong></p> <ul> <li>In the event of the manuscript to be published in the<em> Malaysian Journal of Science</em> contains materials copyrighted to others prior, it is the responsibility of current author(s) to obtain written permission from the copyright owner or owners.<br /><br /></li> <li>This written permission should be submitted with the proof-copy of the manuscript to be published in the <em>Malaysian Journal of Science</em> </li> </ul> mjs_um@um.edu.my (Editor-in-Chief / Journal Manager) mjs_um@um.edu.my (MJS Secretariat) Wed, 30 Jun 2021 15:06:44 +0800 OJS 3.3.0.6 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 BAIT PREFERENCES BY DIFFERENT SMALL MAMMAL ASSEMBLAGES FOR EFFECTIVE CAGE-TRAPPING https://mjs.um.edu.my/index.php/MJS/article/view/21738 <p>The ecological study of small mammals often uses the cage-trapping method, installed with baits. Capture rates vary according to different baits used. We want to determine the bait preferences by different small mammal groups. The cage-trapping approach used common domestic bait types available, namely, aromatic banana, sweet potato with peanut butter, oil palm fruit, dried salted fish, jackfruit, and roasted coconut flesh. Sampling was conducted in three different habitat categories, namely urban, semi-urban, and recreational forests, located in Selangor, Malaysia, for one year. A total of 537 small mammals from 15 species were sampled, which was then grouped into seven groups (i.e., <em>Rattus </em>sp.,<em> Maxomys </em>sp.,<em> Sundamys </em>sp.,<em> Leopaldamys sabanus</em>,<em> Suncus murinus</em>, squirrels, and<em> Tupaia glis</em>). Bait preferences were significantly different among the different small mammal groups, i.e., F (6,35) = 5.621, p = 0.000, with bananas shown to be most preferred bait, followed by oil palm fruits and sweet potatoes. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (nMDS) analysis revealed that the <em>Rattus</em> species encompassed the most diverse bait preference, while <em>S.</em> <em>murinus</em> and <em>L.</em> <em>sabanus</em> were the most selective. Muridae preferred sweet potatoes with peanut butter over bananas, while Sciuridae and Tupaiidae preferred bananas, and Soricidae preferred dried salted fish. This study elucidates the most effective bait selection for different small mammal assemblages, serving as a guide to increase capture rates when sampling targeted population of small mammals. Apart from that, it is helpful for effective rodent pest control. </p> Farah Shafawati Mohd-Taib, Siti Nabilah Ishak Copyright (c) 2021 Malaysian Journal of Science https://mjs.um.edu.my/index.php/MJS/article/view/21738 Wed, 30 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0800 IN VITRO EVALUATION OF ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF SELECTED MALAYSIAN PLANTS AGAINST THE WILT PATHOGEN OF BANANA, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense TROPICAL RACE 4 https://mjs.um.edu.my/index.php/MJS/article/view/23772 <p> Fusarium wilt of banana is one of the most serious diseases affecting banana plantations worldwide. In this study, the inhibitory activities of four essential oils (clove, cinnamon, lesser alpinia and eucalyptus) and five hydrosols (kaffir lime, eucalyptus, bitter ginger, fig and tea tree) on the in vitro growth of the causal agent of the disease, <em>Fusarium oxysporum</em> f. sp. <em>cubense</em> Tropical Race 4 (TR4), were investigated. Results showed that some of these plant extracts inhibited the in vitro mycelial growth of TR4 in a dose-dependent manner. Clove oil and tea tree hydrosol were the most effective in suppressing mycelial growth in this study, the with percentage inhibition radial growth (PIRG) recorded at 46% and 69%, respectively, while lesser alpinia oil and kaffir lime hydrosol showed moderate inhibition of mycelial growth with the PIRG of 33% and 64%, respectively. These results suggest that these compounds have the potential to be used in future greenhouse studies as a single treatment or in combination with previously established biological control agents against Fusarium wilt of banana.</p> Pavitra Paramalingam, Muhammad Salahudin Kheiril Anuar, Nadiya Akmal Baharum, Janna Ong Abdullah, Julia Abd Aziz, Noor Baity Saidi Copyright (c) 2021 Malaysian Journal of Science https://mjs.um.edu.my/index.php/MJS/article/view/23772 Wed, 30 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0800 A GENERALISATION OF THE DIOPHANTINE EQUATION x^2+8∙7^b=y^2r https://mjs.um.edu.my/index.php/MJS/article/view/23567 <p>We investigate the integral solutions to the Diophantine equation where . We first generalise the forms of and that satisfy the equation. We then show the general forms of non-negative integral solutions to the equation under several conditions. We also investigate some special cases in which the integral solutions exist.</p> Siti Hasana Sapar, Kai Siong Yow Copyright (c) 2021 Malaysian Journal of Science https://mjs.um.edu.my/index.php/MJS/article/view/23567 Wed, 30 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0800 MOLLUSCICIDAL ACTIVITY OF ZINGIBER OFFICINALE AND CARICA PAPAYA ON THE EGG HATCHABILITY OF THE GOLDEN APPLE SNAIL, POMACEA CANALICULATA (GASTROPODA: AMPULIRIIDAE) https://mjs.um.edu.my/index.php/MJS/article/view/23832 <p>The study was conducted to assess the effect of <em>Zingiber officinale</em> and <em>Carica papaya</em> extract on the egg hatchability of the golden apple snail, <em>Pomacea canaliculata</em>. This is a freshwater snail that is considered a pest in agriculture as well as natural ecosystems. In combating the population of the aforementioned pest, this study evaluates the use of plant extracts such as biomolluscicides to control the production of new hatchlings from the clusters of eggs. The egg clusters were exposed to different concentrations of <em>Z. officinale</em> ethanolic extract and <em>C. papaya</em> methanolic extracts (25 ppm, 50 ppm, 100 ppm) using the direct single spraying method. Observation was made for a maximum of 30 days. The time taken for the eggs to hatch and the number of eggs successfully hatched were measured to reflect the potential of both extracts in affecting egg hatchability. The finding shows that the eggs hatch later when exposed to increasing concentrations (25 to 100 ppm) of <em>Z. officinale</em> extract. The number of eggs successfully hatched was significantly decreased from 86% to 9% after exposure to 25 ppm and above. Meanwhile, the extract of <em>C. papaya</em> did not show any significant effect on both parameters for egg hatchability of <em>P. canaliculata</em>, regardless of the increase in concentration from 25 to 100 ppm. Our findings reveal that the extract of <em>Z. officinale</em> contains higher molluscicidal activity than the extract of <em>C. papaya</em>. Therefore, it has the potential to be commercialized as a biomolluscicide to control the population of golden apple snails specifically at the egg stage.</p> Hasnun Nita Ismail, Nadia Nisha Musa Copyright (c) 2021 Malaysian Journal of Science https://mjs.um.edu.my/index.php/MJS/article/view/23832 Wed, 30 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0800 DETERMINATION OF NATURAL RADIONUCLIDE AND ASSESSMENTS OF HEALTH HAZARDS IN CHICKEN FEEDS AND MEAT CONSUMED IN LAGOS, NIGERIA https://mjs.um.edu.my/index.php/MJS/article/view/23075 <p>Poultry farming is a highly profitable and not capital intensive agricultural project. It is becoming one of the highest investments in agriculture in Nigeria. The proliferation of self -produced feeds by the Farmers with the addition of some minerals to stimulate growth could elevate the levels of radionuclides in feeds. This, therefore, calls for the determination of the health effects from the consumption of these chicken meats and organs. 10 samples of broilers and 30 feed samples (10 each of Starter, Grower, and Finisher feeds used in feeding the chicken) were used; collected from five selected poultry- farms in Lagos State, Nigeria, and analyzed using spectrometry analysis with NaI (Tl). The results obtained showed that concentrations of <sup>40</sup>K, <sup>232</sup>Th, and <sup>226</sup>Ra were 49.0±25.8, 24.9 ±12.2, and 32.9 ±16.2 Bqkg<sup>-1</sup> respectively, in chicken meats. In the feeds, their values were below the UNSCEAR recommendation. The annual effective doses in chicken meats and organs were lower than the 70µSv/yr limit. The cancer risk was within the recommended limit, and the internal hazard indices were below unity. The mean values of the transfer coefficient (TC) were also below 1 for <sup>40</sup>K, higher than unity for <sup>226</sup>Ra in Finisher feeds, and <sup>232</sup>Th in Starter feeds. The starter and finisher feeds were moderately contaminated. So, feeding chicken with these feeds may expose the consumers to the danger of over-exposure to <sup>226</sup>Ra and <sup>232</sup>Th.</p> Ademola Augustine Kolapo, Gbadeyanka Afees Copyright (c) 2021 Malaysian Journal of Science https://mjs.um.edu.my/index.php/MJS/article/view/23075 Wed, 30 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0800 CHARACTERISATION OF HORDEUM VULGARE CELLULOSE SYNTHASE-LIKE F6 PROMOTER VIA TRANSGENE EXPRESSION IN RICE https://mjs.um.edu.my/index.php/MJS/article/view/28733 <p>Beta-glucan in cereal crops is known as a functional food, which can reduce cardiovascular diseases by lowering blood cholesterol levels. However, beta-glucan content is relatively low in rice grains, despite being relatively abundant in barley and oat grains. Taking advantage of rice as the staple food for Asians, increasing beta-glucan content in rice for their consumption may help to reduce cardiovascular-related diseases among them. Previous attempts in increasing beta-glucan content in rice via transgene expression of beta-glucan synthase genes from barley into rice were unsuccessful due to the use of non-tissue specific as well as constitutively expressing promoter. The current transgenic expression study was performed to characterise the promoter of beta-glucan synthase gene in barley using beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene. Two fragments of <em>HvCslF6</em> promoter (2771 bp and 1257 bp) were successfully fused with GUS reporter gene and integrated into rice plants, demonstrated that the promoter was functional in the heterologous plant system. The presence of blue GUS staining was observed on the leaf, root, stem, and grain of the transgenic rice regardless of the promoter length used and stayed functional up to the next generation. GUS qualitative analysis confirmed that the shorter promoter length generated a stronger GUS activity in comparison to the longer one. This indicated that the presence of repressor elements in between the -2771 bp and -1257 bp regions. The preliminary results shed light on the strong promoter activity in the rice endosperm tissue. It can become an alternative to the collection of plant promoters that can be used for grain quality improvement and biofortification.</p> Azreena Jamahari, Wong Ling-Chie, Fan Xioalai, Liu Qiaoquan, Leong Sui Sien, Fauziah Abu Bakar, Amy Halimah Rajaee, Patricia King Jie Hung, Hairul Azman Roslan, Wong Sie Chuong Copyright (c) 2021 Malaysian Journal of Science https://mjs.um.edu.my/index.php/MJS/article/view/28733 Wed, 30 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0800 PHYTOPLANKTON COMPOSITION OF MARICULTURE AREA IN SUNGAI UDANG, PENANG, MALAYSIA, THE NORTHERN STRAIT OF MALACCA https://mjs.um.edu.my/index.php/MJS/article/view/27077 <p>A study was conducted in the marine finfish cage culture area in Sungai Udang, Penang, at the northern part of the Malacca Straits to examine the phytoplankton composition and abundance especially for potentially harmful phytoplankton. Monthly sampling were taken from March 2016 to January 2017 at nine sampling stations. Physio-chemical parameters of surface seawater such as pH, dissolved oxygen, temperature, salinity, total suspended solids, and nutrients (nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, phosphate and silicate) were also measured. A total of 54 phytoplankton taxa were recorded, with 37 genera belonged to diatoms, 15 of dinoflagellates, and 2 of cyanobacteria. The composition of phytoplankton was dominated by diatoms (&gt;85%) at all sampling stations throughout the sampling period. The phytoplankton abundance ranged between 2.6×10<sup>3</sup> cells L<sup>-1</sup> and 5.8×10<sup>6</sup> cells L<sup>-1</sup>. The potentially harmful toxic phytoplankton observed throughout the sampling period are dinoflagellates <em>Alexandrium</em> spp., <em>Prorocentrum micans</em> and <em>Dinophysis caudata</em> and diatoms, <em>Pseudo-nitzchia</em> spp but in low cell density. A total of six bloom-forming phytoplankton that can potentially trigger mass mortality of cultured fish such as <em>Akashiwo sanguinea</em>, <em>Chaetoceros</em> spp., <em>Ceratium furca</em>, <em>Ceratium fusus, Margalefidinium </em>spp. and<em> Karlodinium</em> spp. recorded at this area were relatively low in cell densities. Furthermore, no fish kill incident was reported in the area from blooms of phytoplankton during the period of study. Even though potentially harmful phytoplankton present were in low densities, they may pose significant risks to aquaculture activity if there is a sudden bloom. Hence, a monitoring program should be implemented to provide early warning of harmful algae blooms and safeguard the aquaculture industry in Sungai Udang, Penang.</p> Roziawati Mohd Razali, Masazurah A. Rahim, Ku Kassim Ku Yaacob Copyright (c) 2021 Malaysian Journal of Science https://mjs.um.edu.my/index.php/MJS/article/view/27077 Wed, 30 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0800 MODELLING OF INTRADAY PHOTOVOLTAIC POWER PRODUCTION https://mjs.um.edu.my/index.php/MJS/article/view/21544 <p>Photovoltaic (PV) productions should occur within a time interval of sunlight. Time mismatches are detected between sunrise and first production hour as well as sunset and last production hour in a transmission system operator, Amprion, Germany. Hence, in this paper, we investigate this effect using an additive function of two seasonalities and a stochastic process. Both seasonalities are based on the mimicked locations, corrected by a weighing scale, depending on the first and last production hours' coordinates. The result shows that the proposed deterministic model could capture the effect of sunrise and sunset. Also, the dynamics of random components are sufficiently explained by an autoregressive process of order two. Finally, the Normal Inverse Gaussian distribution is shown as the best distribution in explaining noise behaviour, particularly heavy tails in the production's residuals, compared to the Gaussian distribution.</p> Noor ‘Adilah Ibrahim Copyright (c) 2021 Malaysian Journal of Science https://mjs.um.edu.my/index.php/MJS/article/view/21544 Thu, 01 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0800