Malaysian Journal of Science <p style="text-align: justify;">Malaysian Journal of Science (MJS) is the official peer-reviewed open-access journal of the <a href="">Faculty of Science, Universiti Malaya</a>. Effective from the year 2020 onwards, the frequency of regular issues publication is three times a year. MJS is indexed in <a href="">Scopus</a>, <a href=";as_sdt=0%2C5&amp;q=Malaysian+Journal+of+Science&amp;btnG=">Google Scholar</a>, <a href="">Chemical Abstracts Service Database</a>, <a href="">ASEAN Citation Index (ACI)</a>, and <a href="">MYCite</a>.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">MJS is a reputable journal with a growing audience, which focuses on current developments in all disciplines of science. The journal publishes original articles, review articles, short communications, and case reports that are of importance to the scientific community. </p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>eISSN : 2600-8688<br /></strong><strong><strong>Print ISSN : 1394-3065<br /></strong></strong><strong><strong>Publisher : Faculty of Science, Universiti Malaya</strong></strong> </p> en-US <p><strong>Transfer of Copyrights</strong></p> <ul> <li><strong> </strong>In the event of publication of the manuscript entitled <strong>[INSERT MANUSCRIPT TITLE AND REF NO.] </strong>in the <em>Malaysian Journal of Science</em>, I hereby transfer copyrights of the manuscript title, abstract and contents to the <em>Malaysian Journal of Science</em> and the Faculty of Science, University of Malaya (as the publisher) for the full legal term of copyright and any renewals thereof throughout the world in any format, and any media for communication.</li> </ul> <p> </p> <p><strong>Conditions of Publication</strong></p> <ul> <li><strong> </strong>I hereby state that this manuscript to be published is an original work, unpublished in any form prior and I have obtained the necessary permission for the reproduction (or am the owner) of any images, illustrations, tables, charts, figures, maps, photographs and other visual materials of whom the copyrights is owned by a third party.</li> <li>This manuscript contains no statements that are contradictory to the relevant local and international laws or that infringes on the rights of others.</li> <li>I agree to indemnify the <em>Malaysian Journal of Science</em> and the Faculty of Science, University of Malaya (as the publisher) in the event of any claims that arise in regards to the above conditions and assume full liability on the published manuscript.</li> </ul> <p> </p> <p><strong>Reviewer’s Responsibilities</strong></p> <ul> <li>Reviewers must treat the manuscripts received for reviewing process as confidential. It must not be shown or discussed with others without the authorization from the editor of MJS.</li> <li>Reviewers assigned must not have conflicts of interest with respect to the original work, the authors of the article or the research funding.</li> <li>Reviewers should judge or evaluate the manuscripts objective as possible. The feedback from the reviewers should be express clearly with supporting arguments.</li> <li>If the assigned reviewer considers themselves not able to complete the review of the manuscript, they must communicate with the editor, so that the manuscript could be sent to another suitable reviewer.</li> </ul> <p> </p> <p><strong>Copyright: Rights of the Author(s)</strong></p> <ul> <li>Effective 2007, it will become the policy of the Malaysian Journal of Science (published by the Faculty of Science, University of Malaya) to obtain copyrights of all manuscripts published. This is to facilitate:<br />(a) Protection against copyright infringement of the manuscript through copyright breaches or piracy<strong>. <br /></strong>(b) Timely handling of reproduction requests from authorized third parties that are addressed directly to the Faculty of Science, University of Malaya.</li> <li>As the author, you may publish the fore-mentioned manuscript, whole or any part thereof, provided acknowledgement regarding copyright notice and reference to first publication in the <em>Malaysian Journal of Science</em> and Faculty of Science, University of Malaya (as the publishers) are given.<br />You may produce copies of your manuscript, whole or any part thereof, for teaching purposes or to be provided, on individual basis, to fellow researchers.</li> <li>You may include the fore-mentioned manuscript, whole or any part thereof, electronically on a secure network at your affiliated institution, provided acknowledgement regarding copyright notice and reference to first publication in the <em>Malaysian Journal of Science</em> and Faculty of Science, University of Malaya (as the publishers) are given.</li> <li>You may include the fore-mentioned manuscript, whole or any part thereof, on the World Wide Web, provided acknowledgement regarding copyright notice and reference to first publication in the <em>Malaysian Journal of Science</em> and Faculty of Science, University of Malaya (as the publishers) are given.</li> <li>In the event that your manuscript, whole or any part thereof, has been requested to be reproduced, for any purpose or in any form approved by the <em>Malaysian Journal of Science</em> and Faculty of Science, University of Malaya (as the publishers), you will be informed. It is requested that any changes to your contact details (especially e-mail addresses) are made known.</li> </ul> <p> </p> <p><strong> Copyright: Role and responsibility of the Author(s)</strong></p> <ul> <li>In the event of the manuscript to be published in the<em> Malaysian Journal of Science</em> contains materials copyrighted to others prior, it is the responsibility of current author(s) to obtain written permission from the copyright owner or owners.</li> <li>This written permission should be submitted with the proof-copy of the manuscript to be published in the <em>Malaysian Journal of Science</em> </li> </ul> <p> </p> (Prof. Dr. Wan Haliza binti Abd Majid) (MJS Secretariat) Mon, 27 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0800 OJS 60 EFFECTS OF VARIOUS LIGHT INTENSITIES ON PHYCOCYANIN COMPOSITION OF CYANOBACTERIUM LIMNOSPIRA FUSIFORMIS (VORONICHIN) NOWICKA-KRAWCZYK, MÜHLSTEINOVÁ & HAUER <p>Phycocyanin denotes a photosynthetic pigment discovered in Rhodophyta and cyanobacteria, which has been used in medical, industrial, and agricultural applications. In general, phycocyanin production by cyanobacteria depends on many environmental conditions, mainly light during the cultivation period. The goal of this research was to see how various light intensities of 47, 52, as well as 60 µmol m<sup>-2</sup> s<sup>-1</sup>, affected the Phycocyanin production of cyanobacterium <em>Limnospira fusiformis</em> cultured in Zarrouk medium with a maximum temperature of 28°C. The outcomes revealed that with mild light intensity (52 µmol m<sup>-2</sup> s<sup>-1</sup>), increased phycocyanin production of 11.94 ng/mg took place. With regard to greater light intensity (60 µmol m<sup>-2</sup> s<sup>-1</sup>), the lesser phycocyanin production of 0.57 ng/mg took place. These results give a good impression that moderate lighting increases phycocyanin production, but high light intensity inhibits it. The statistical analysis results also showed that there are significant differences between the light intensities used in the study at a level of p&lt;0.05. Therefore, this study concluded that phycocyanin was affected by light intensity. Light regime optimization gives a good yield of this pigment. In this study, high phycocyanin production by cyanobacterium <em>Limnospira fusiformis</em> occurred in mild light intensity (52 µmol m<sup>-2</sup> s<sup>-1</sup>).</p> Haider kareem , Haider Alghanmi Copyright (c) 2023 Malaysian Journal of Science Mon, 27 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0800 LARVICIDAL ACTIVITY OF THE SYNTHESISED LIGNANS, NEOLIGNANS, AND COUMARIN AGAINST Crocidolimia binotalis 2nd INSTAR LARVAE <p>Five compounds comprising 8-O-4’-neolignan (<strong>7</strong>), two arylnaphthalene lignans (<strong>5</strong>, <strong>8</strong>), aryldihydrobenzofuran neolignan (<strong>4</strong>), and lignan (<strong>6</strong>) were synthesised by enzymatic coupling reaction using horseradish peroxidase (HRP) between vanillin (<strong>1</strong>) with methyl ferulate (<strong>2</strong>) or methyl sinapate (<strong>3</strong>). All of these compounds, as well as previously synthesised palladium-catalysed coupling products of neolignan (<strong>9</strong>), 8-O-4'-neolignan (<strong>10</strong>), arylcoumarin (<strong>11</strong>), and lignan (<strong>12</strong>), were examined for larvicidal activity against <em>Crocidolomia binotalis</em> 2<sup>nd</sup> instar larvae. It revealed that seven out of nine synthesised compounds had a mortality rate of more than 90% after 24 hours of exposure. Neolignan (<strong>10</strong>) and lignan (<strong>6</strong>) demonstrated the strongest larvicidal activity with LD<sub>50 </sub>= 2.218 mg/L and LD<sub>50 </sub>= 1.678 mg/L, respectively compared to the standard azadirachtin (LD<sub>50 </sub>=2.818 mg/L). The results showed that the synthesised compounds have a high potential for use in the control of&nbsp;<em>C. binotalis&nbsp;</em>larvae and could be used in the development of new and more effective compounds as larvicides.</p> Siti Fadilah Juhan, Siti Mariam Mohd Nor, Mohd Shukri Mat Ali, Siti Zulaika Md Nor Copyright (c) 2023 Malaysian Journal of Science Mon, 27 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0800 A TWO-WAREHOUSE INVENTORY MODEL WITH REWORK PROCESS AND TIME-VARYING DEMAND <p>A two-warehouse inventory model with deteriorating items and rework process with time varying demand rate is presented. The Last-In-First-Out (LIFO) and First-In-First-Out (FIFO) policies are considered with the assumption that the holding cost is higher in the rented warehouse (RW) compared to the owned warehouse (OW). The aim of the proposed model is to determine the optimum values of time in a production cycle that will minimise the total relevant cost, <em>TRC*</em>. We have utilised Microsoft Excel Solver as a solution tool, in which the generalised reduced gradient (GRG Nonlinear) method has been chosen as the solving method. The result is further verified using the built-in function in the Mathematica software. We observed that given same changes are made to the parameters in both the LIFO and FIFO systems, a lower total relevant cost, <em>TRC</em>* is obtained in the LIFO system. This shall mean that the LIFO system is less expensive than the FIFO system, provided that the holding cost in RW is higher than the holding cost in OW. The flow of inventory in the LIFO system suggests that items stored last in the owned warehouse will be dispatched first. This is an important factor for manufacturers in ensuring that items are distributed at optimal freshness.</p> Nurnadiah Nurhasril, Dr. Siti Suzlin Supadi, Prof. Dr. Mohd Omar Copyright (c) 2023 Malaysian Journal of Science Mon, 27 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0800 TWO-SAMPLE TEST FOR RANDOMLY CENSORED DATA <p>In this paper, a nonparametric test has been proposed for the two-sample scale problem, when sample observations are randomly right censored. The proposed test is based on the extremes of observations as an extension of commonly used Gehan’s test for two-sample problem. Critical values are obtained through simulation for various lifetime distributions at different sample sizes. Power performance for the proposed test is studied considering various distributions. On comparing with the Gehan’s test, it is found that the proposed test has more statistical power and efficiency for some special cases. An illustration with real-life data set is also provided.</p> Ayushee, Narinder Kumar, Manish Goyal Copyright (c) 2023 Malaysian Journal of Science Mon, 27 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0800 MODELLING THE MULTITEAM PREY–PREDATOR DYNAMICS USING THE DELAY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION <p>In nature, many species form teams and move in herds from one place to another. This helps them in reducing the risk of predation. Time delay caused by the age structure, maturation period, and feeding time is a major factor in real-time prey–predator dynamics that result in periodic solutions and the bifurcation phenomenon. This study analysed the behaviour of teamed-up prey populations against predation by using a mathematical model. The following variables were considered: the prey population P<sub>r1</sub>, the prey population P<sub>r2</sub>, and the predator population P<sub>r3</sub>. The interior equilibrium point was calculated. A local satiability analysis was performed to ensure a feasible interior equilibrium. The effect of the delay parameter on the dynamics was examined. A Hopf bifurcation was noted when the delay parameter crossed the critical value. Direction analysis was performed using the centre manifold theorem. The graphs of analytical results were plotted using MATLAB. </p> Shiv Raj, Pankaj kumar Copyright (c) 2023 Malaysian Journal of Science Mon, 27 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0800 AN INTEGRAL TRANSFORM TOGETHER WITH TAYLOR SERIES AND DECOMPOSITION METHOD FOR THE SOLUTION OF NONLINEAR BOUNDARY VALUE PROBLEMS OF HIGHER ORDER <p>This work aims to determine the approximate solutions of nonlinear boundary value problems of higher order obtained through the Aboodh Transform Series Decomposition Method (ATSDM), a method designed to find the integral and the inverse transform of the problems, expand the exponential function, and simultaneously decompose the nonlinear terms. The results obtained demonstrate that ATSDM is an excellent and trusted approximate method that can be employed to obtain accurate results for any problem similar to the one presented in this work.</p> E. I. Akinola, Johnson Adekunle Owolabi, S. Alao, O. S. Sangoniyi Copyright (c) 2023 Malaysian Journal of Science Mon, 27 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0800 SMART FARMING USING A SOLAR POWERED AQUAPONICS SYSTEM FOR A SUSTAINABLE FOOD PRODUCTION <p>This paper discusses the prospect of utilization of solar energy for aquaponics operation. Aquaponic is a platform for farmers to simultaneously grow fish and plants in a same unit. It is sustainable and produces little waste. The need of pumps for continuous water recirculation and air supply within the system could be a hindrance in the aquaponics operation especially if the unit is nowhere near any power outlet. It is indeed a visible solution as Malaysia located at equator and receives average sunlight ~9 hours a day throughout the year with solar intensity as high as 1800-1900 kWh/m<sup>2</sup>. The work presents detail equipment for establishment of suitable solar PV system for aquaponics operation and reviews utilities of aquaponics platform that can be supported using solar energy. Possible integration of Internet-of-Things (IoT) for remote monitoring of such solar operated aquaponics unit is also discussed. Analysis showed that even when operated with full energy supply for only 12 hours, the yield and growth rates of the crop and fish grown in the system powered remains unaffected. This signified the potential for the use of solar energy as alternative energy for operation of the aquaponics unit. The main advantage perhaps is the realization of aquaponics setup in remote area where electricity is not accessible. Installation cost may be relatively high (100W PV system could cost nearly RM 600 for installation) but for a long run, it is highly beneficial as utility cost and cost for installing the national grid can be significantly reduced. Summarizing, the project introduced the concept of smart farming via aquaponics for a sustainable production of crop and fish using a renewable and clean solar energy for its operation.</p> Muhd Nazrul Hisham Zainal Alam, Mohd Johari Kamaruddin , Sani Amril Samsudin , Raudhah Othman, Nur Hanis Mohammad Radzi , Abioye Abiodun Emmanuel , Mohamad Shukri Zainal Abidin Copyright (c) 2023 Malaysian Journal of Science Mon, 27 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0800 THE HEALTH BENEFITS OF FERMENTED FOOD: A NARRATIVE REVIEW <p>Fermented foods are consumed in many parts of the world since ancient times and they include dairy products, meat, fruits, vegetables, and alcoholic beverages. These foods have been documented to be beneficial to human health due to the microbial content, which mainly consists of probiotics of various bacterial and fungal species. Fermented food probiotics can modulate gastrointestinal health, thereby affecting other bodily systems such as the immune system and brain functions. The microbial and nutritional content of fermented foods may also contribute to reducing cardiovascular risks and improving metabolic syndrome parameters. Fermented foods have antimicrobial properties that can aid in suppressing the growth of pathogenic microbes. In addition, fermented foods may impart beneficial effects to the nervous system, which include improvement of cognitive function and a decrease in the symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress. Literature relating to the benefit of fermented foods on different aspects of human health is sparse which poses significant limitations on understanding the relationship between fermenting foods and human health. This paper describes different types of fermented foods containing the relevant micro-organisms associated with the improvement of several health conditions.</p> Nabil Husaini Mohd Kamalul Abrar, Juliana Md Jaffri Copyright (c) 2023 Malaysian Journal of Science Mon, 27 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0800 STUDY OF FECAL GLUCOCORTICOID METABOLITE IN BEARS: A REVIEW <p>Fecal glucocorticoid metabolite (FGM) analysis is a non-invasive method to monitor animals' welfare in captivity and wild environments. Glucocorticoid also known as cortisol is a hormone that indicates the level of stress in animals and humans. This paper reviews the use of FGM analysis on bears and the methodologies used to study this hormone in every species of bear. The review method used was descriptive review. The bears that were included in this review are the brown bear (Ursus arctos), Polar bear (Ursus maritimus), Asiatic black bear (Ursus thibetanus), American black bear (Ursus americanus), Malayan sun bear (Helarctos malayanus), sloth bear (Melursus ursinus), Andean spectacled bear (Tremactos ornatus), and giant panda (Ailuropodia melanoleuca). Studies of FGM on polar bears showed that zoo-to-zoo transportation could cause an increase in FGM level during transportation and FGM is not suitable to be used to differentiate between pseudo-pregnancy and true pregnancy. In Malayan sun bear, FGM level is high in female bears that show agonistic behavior and is associated with low progesterone levels. In addition, studies on Malayan sun bear show that not only FGM can be analyzed from fecal samples, but also the reproductive hormones of estrogen and progesterone. In Asiatic black bears, FGM is higher in bears that live in a bile farm than forage outside the forest reserve. High parasite load in giant pandas is associated with a high level of FGM since parasite infection is considered a stressor that can elicit a stress response. Also both male and female panda have high FGM during the breeding season to increase metabolism to generate energy required for reproductive activities. The Alopecia syndrome in Andean spectacled bear has no significant relation to FGM level. Brown bears with several types of food in their diet have lower FGM than those with only one type of food. There is no specific study of FGM that focused on sloth bear and American black bear, but there were several studies on glucocorticoid in black bears that are not extracted from fecal samples. FGM can be analyzed using both enzyme-immunoassay (EIA) and radioimmunoassay (RIA) but, EIA is preferable due to safety reasons.</p> Elden Zoumin, Siti Sarayati Hj. Abdul Mawah, Lo Chor Wai (Dr.), Farnidah Jasnie Copyright (c) 2023 Malaysian Journal of Science Mon, 27 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0800 ANTHOCYANINS: A HUE FOR HISTOLOGY - SYSTEMATIC REVIEW <p>Background: Many histological stains cause health hazards to technicians, pathologists, and researchers. The hazard-free and eco-friendly natural anthocyanins have the potential to be a new source for histological stains. This study aims to systematically review the use of plant products containing anthocyanin for histopathological diagnosis. Methods: A comprehensive literature search was done using suitable keywords on Wiley, PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, and Web of Science databases. A total of 30 articles were selected for systematic review, where data obtained from the studies were tabulated. Results: About 90% of the reviewed studies have proven that anthocyanin-containing plant products may be used as natural stains. Out of the 30 studies, 49% involved the use of Hibiscus extract, 11% utilised mulberry extract, 9% utilised pomegranate, another 9% involved rose, and the remaining ones utilised black plum, black rice, butterfly pea, the flame of woods, onion skin, and red poppy extracts. Almost 40% of the studies concluded that aqueous extracts are superior to alcohol ones, and 46% used either iron or alum as mordant. Conclusion: Natural stains containing anthocyanin could be a better alternative to synthetic histological stains. Further extensive studies should be conducted to observe the use of these stains in pathological diagnosis.</p> Shiny Jasphin, Archana Parampalli Raghavendra, Monica Charlotte Solomon , Arul Amuthan , Brij Mohan Kumar Singh , Nikitha Valerina Kairanna Copyright (c) 2023 Malaysian Journal of Science Mon, 27 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0800