Main Article Content
The distribution of malaria is characterised by microgeographic variations determined by a range of factors, including the local environment. A study on the spatial distribution of malaria about land cover patterns was carried out by sampling Primary Health Centres in Ogoni Land. Nine Primary Healthcare Centres (PHCs) were selected across four local government areas (LGA) using Systematic Grid Point Sampling. Human blood samples were obtained from 318 consented individuals, and questionnaires were administered to obtain demographic data. Plasmodium species were identified through microscopy using thick and thin blood films. A geodatabase was created and imported into ArcGIS 10.7 to produce a thematic map of the study area. A cloud-free Landsat-8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) was employed for land cover analysis. Both supervised and unsupervised classifications of land cover were performed to generate the land cover classes. Pearson correlation was carried out to determine the significance between malaria distribution and land cover. Of the 318 individuals, 169 were infected with an overall prevalence of 53.1%.Only P. falciparum was identified and malaria distribution showed spatial variations. Across the PHCs sampled, the highest point prevalence was recorded in Model Primary Health Centre Koroma in Tai LGA whereas the lowest was recorded in MPHC Okwale in Khana LGA. Cumulatively, Kwawa PHC recorded the highest malaria prevalence whereas MPHC Bunu in Tai recorded the lowest prevalence. The highest prevalence was recorded in Khana LGA while the lowest was recorded in Eleme LGA. Land cover analysis revealed that Ogoni Land has a total land cover mass of 982.97km.2 Sparse vegetation dominated the study area (471.06km2) while dense vegetation covers a total mass of 213.1km2. Bivariate analysis showed a significant correlation between malaria prevalence and dense vegetation (p<0.05, 0.952). Dense vegetation played a significant role in malaria transmission in Ogoni Land. The study concludes that the presence of dense vegetation is associated with high malaria prevalence in the study area.
Transfer of Copyrights
- In the event of publication of the manuscript entitled [INSERT MANUSCRIPT TITLE AND REF NO.] in the Malaysian Journal of Science, I hereby transfer copyrights of the manuscript title, abstract and contents to the Malaysian Journal of Science and the Faculty of Science, University of Malaya (as the publisher) for the full legal term of copyright and any renewals thereof throughout the world in any format, and any media for communication.
Conditions of Publication
- I hereby state that this manuscript to be published is an original work, unpublished in any form prior and I have obtained the necessary permission for the reproduction (or am the owner) of any images, illustrations, tables, charts, figures, maps, photographs and other visual materials of whom the copyrights is owned by a third party.
- This manuscript contains no statements that are contradictory to the relevant local and international laws or that infringes on the rights of others.
- I agree to indemnify the Malaysian Journal of Science and the Faculty of Science, University of Malaya (as the publisher) in the event of any claims that arise in regards to the above conditions and assume full liability on the published manuscript.
- Reviewers must treat the manuscripts received for reviewing process as confidential. It must not be shown or discussed with others without the authorization from the editor of MJS.
- Reviewers assigned must not have conflicts of interest with respect to the original work, the authors of the article or the research funding.
- Reviewers should judge or evaluate the manuscripts objective as possible. The feedback from the reviewers should be express clearly with supporting arguments.
- If the assigned reviewer considers themselves not able to complete the review of the manuscript, they must communicate with the editor, so that the manuscript could be sent to another suitable reviewer.
Copyright: Rights of the Author(s)
- Effective 2007, it will become the policy of the Malaysian Journal of Science (published by the Faculty of Science, University of Malaya) to obtain copyrights of all manuscripts published. This is to facilitate:
(a) Protection against copyright infringement of the manuscript through copyright breaches or piracy.
(b) Timely handling of reproduction requests from authorized third parties that are addressed directly to the Faculty of Science, University of Malaya.
- As the author, you may publish the fore-mentioned manuscript, whole or any part thereof, provided acknowledgement regarding copyright notice and reference to first publication in the Malaysian Journal of Science and Faculty of Science, University of Malaya (as the publishers) are given.
You may produce copies of your manuscript, whole or any part thereof, for teaching purposes or to be provided, on individual basis, to fellow researchers.
- You may include the fore-mentioned manuscript, whole or any part thereof, electronically on a secure network at your affiliated institution, provided acknowledgement regarding copyright notice and reference to first publication in the Malaysian Journal of Science and Faculty of Science, University of Malaya (as the publishers) are given.
- You may include the fore-mentioned manuscript, whole or any part thereof, on the World Wide Web, provided acknowledgement regarding copyright notice and reference to first publication in the Malaysian Journal of Science and Faculty of Science, University of Malaya (as the publishers) are given.
- In the event that your manuscript, whole or any part thereof, has been requested to be reproduced, for any purpose or in any form approved by the Malaysian Journal of Science and Faculty of Science, University of Malaya (as the publishers), you will be informed. It is requested that any changes to your contact details (especially e-mail addresses) are made known.
Copyright: Role and responsibility of the Author(s)
- In the event of the manuscript to be published in the Malaysian Journal of Science contains materials copyrighted to others prior, it is the responsibility of current author(s) to obtain written permission from the copyright owner or owners.
- This written permission should be submitted with the proof-copy of the manuscript to be published in the Malaysian Journal of Science
Abah A.E., Awi-Waadu G. D. B., Nduka F.O. and Richard A. (2017). Malaria infection and socioeconomic status of some residents of Port Harcourt metropolis, Rivers State, Nigeria. Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management.;21 (2): 299-304.
Abiodun, G.J., Maharaj, R., Witbooi, P. and Okosun, K.O. (2016). Modelling the influence of temperature and rainfall on the population dynamics of Anopheles arabiensis. Malaria Journal, 15:364.
Adeola, A.M., Botai, J.O., Olwoch, J.M., de W Rautenbach, H.C.J., Kalumba, A.M., Tsela, P.L., Adisa, M.O., Wasswa, N.F., Mmtoni, P. and Ssentongo, A. (2015). Application of geographical information system and remote sensing in malaria research and control in South Africa: a review. Southern African Journal of Infectious Diseases, 30:4: 114-121 DOI: 10.1080/23120053.2015.1106765
Adimi, F., Soebiyanto, R.P., Safi, N. and Kiang, R. (2010). Towards malaria risk prediction in Afghanistan using remote sensing. Malaria Journal, 9:125.
Augustine- D’Israel, E. and Abah, A.E. (2018). Malaria infection among persons patronizing drugstores for malaria treatment in Port Harcourt and its environs Rivers, State Nigeria. International Research Journal of Public Health, 2:20.
Awosolu, O.B., Yahaya, Z.S., Farah, Haziqah, M.T., Simon-Oke, I.A. and Fakunle, C. (2021). A cross-sectional study of the prevalence, density and risk factors associated with malaria transmission in urban communities of Ibadan, southwestern Nigeria. Heliyon, 20 (7): e05975
Ayanlade, A., Adeoye, N.O. and Babatimehin, O.(2013). Intra-annual climate variability and malaria transmission in Nigeria. Bulletin of Geography. Socio–economic Series, 21: 7–19.
Ayo, V. O., Obafemi, A. and Ogoro, M. (2017). Mapping Land Cover Determinants of Malaria in Obio-Akpor Local Government of Rivers State, Nigeria. IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 22 (6): 29-40. DOI: 10.9790/0837-2206042940.
Bassey, S.E. and Izah, S.C.(2017). Some determinant factors of Malaria Prevalence in Nigeria. Journal of Mosquito Research,7(7): 48-58.
Bassene, H., Niang, E.H.A., Fenollar, F., Fenollar, F., Doucoure, S., Faye, O., Raoult, D., Sokhna, C. and Mediannikov, O. (2020). Role of plants in the transmission of Asaia sp., which potentially inhibit the Plasmodiumsporogenic cycle in Anopheles mosquitoes. Scientific Reports,10: 7144 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-64163-5
Coleman, M., Mabuza, A.M., Kok, G., Coetzee, M. and Durrheim, D.N. (2009). Using the SaTScan method to detect local malaria clusters for guiding malaria control programmes. MalariaJournal, 8:68.
Egbom, S.E. and Nzeako, S.O. (2017). Malaria parasitaemia amongst military personnel households in a military formation in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. International Journal of Scientific Research in Environmental Sciences; 5 (1):0010-0016.
Egbom, S.E., Ogidi, M., Nduka, F.O. and Nzeako, S.O (2021). Malaria prevalence and its demographic determinants in Oyigbo LGA, Rivers State, South south Nigeria. Asian Journal of Biology, 12 (4): 26-33.
Egbom, S.E., Nduka, F.O., Nzeako, S.O., (2022). Point-Prevalence Mapping of Malaria in Rivers State, Nigeria. Tanzania Journal of Health Research, 23 (4):1-9
Feng, J., Zhang, L., Huang, F., Yin, J., Tu, H., Xia, Z., Zhou, S., Xiao, N. and Zhou, X. (2018). Ready for malaria elimination: zero indigenous case reported in the People’s Republic of China. Malaria Journal, 17: 315
Hay, S.I. and Snow, R.W. (2006). The Malaria Atlas Project: developing global maps of malaria risk. PLoS Med, 3:e473
Kabaria, C.W., Molteni, F., Mandike, R., Chacky, F., Noor, A.M., Snow, R.W. andLinard, C. (2016). Mapping intra-urban malaria risk using high resolution satellite imagery: a case study of Dar es Salaam. International Journal of Health Geographics, 15:26. DOI 10.1186/s12942-016-0051-y
Kigozi, R., Zinszer, K., Mpimbaza,A., Sserwanga, A., Kigozi, S.P. and Kamya, M. (2016). Assessing temporal associations between environmental factors and malaria morbidity at varying transmission settings in Uganda. Malaria Journal, 15:511. DOI 10.1186/s12936-016-1549-2
Machault, V., Vignolles, C., Pages, F., Gadiaga, L., Tourre, Y.M., Gaye, A., Sokhna, C., Trape, J.F., Lacaux, J.P. and Rogier, C. (2012). Risk mapping of Anopheles gambiaes.l. densities using remotely-sensed environmental and meteorological data in an urban area: Dakar, Senegal. PLoS ONE, 7(11):e50674.
Ndiaye A, Niang E.H.A., Diène, A.N., Nourdine, M.A., Sarr, P.C., Konate, L., Faye, O., Gaye, O. and Sy, O. (2020). Mapping the breeding sites of Anopheles gambiae s. l. in areas of residual malaria transmission in central western Senegal. PLoS ONE,15 (12): e0236607. https://doi. org/10.1371/journal.pone.0236607.
Nikbakhtzadeh, M. R., Terbot, J. W. 2nd, Otienoburu, P. E. & Foster, W. A. (2014). Olfactory basis of floral preference of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) among common African plants. Journal of Vector Ecology: Journal of The Society for Vector Ecology, 39: 372–383. https://doi.org/10.1111/jvec.12113.
Nmadu P. M., Peter E., Alexander P., Koggie A. Z., Maikenti J. I., (2015). The Prevalence of Malaria in Children between the Ages 2-15 Visiting Gwarinpa General Hospital Life-Camp, Abuja, Nigeria. Journal of Health Science, 5(3): 47-51.
Ngom, R., and Siegmund, A. (2015). The key role of socio-demographic and socioenvironmental factors in urban malaria occurrence and control - An illustration using the city of Yaoundé. Social Science and Medicine, 133:269–79.
Nzeako SO, Nduka FO and Origie OA. (2013). Prevalence of malaria in pregnant women attending ante natal care at University of Port Harcourt Primary Health Care Centre Aluu, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. International Journal of Scientific Research in Environmental Sciences,1 (10): 268-272
Okogun, .G.R.A. Life table analysis of Anopheles malaria vectors: Generational mortality as tool in mosquito vector abundance and control studies. J Vec Borne Dis. 2005;42: 45-53
Okunlola, O.A. and Oyeyemi, O.T. (2019). Spatio-temporal analysis of association between incidence of malaria and environmental predictors 0f malaria transmission in Nigeria. Scientific Reports, 9:17500.
Onyiri, N. (2015). Estimating Malaria Burden in Nigeria: A Geostatistical Modelling Approach. Geospatial Health, 10(2):306.
Oluwole, A.S., Adeniran, A.A., Mogaji, H.O., Olabinke, D.B., Abe, E.M., Bankole, S.O., Sam-Wobo, S.O. and Ekpo, U.F. (2018). Prevalence, intensity and spatial co-distribution of schistosomiasis and soil transmitted helminths infections in Ogun state, Nigeria. Parasitology Open,4(e8): 1–9.
Palaniyandi, V., Anand, P.H., Maniyosai, R., Mariappan, T. and Das, P.K. (2016). The integrated remote sensing and GIS for mapping of potential vector breeding habitats, and the Internet GIS surveillance for epidemic transmission control, and management. Journal of Entomology and Zoological Studies,4 (2): 310-31.
Pam, DD, Omalu ICJ, Akintola AA, Dan Azumi Y, Kalesanwo AO, Babagana M, Muhammad SA, Ocha IM, Adeniyi KA. The Role of GIS And Remote Sensing in the Control of Malaria. Online J Health Allied Scs. 2017;16(3):7.
Paul, P., Kangalawe, R.Y.M. and Mboera, L.E.G. (2018). Land-use patterns and their implication on malaria transmission in Kilosa District, Tanzania. Travel Medicine and Vaccines,4:6. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40794-018-0066-4
Ricotta, E.E., Frese, S.A., Choobwe, C., Louis, T.A. and Shiff, C.J. (2014). Evaluating local vegetation cover as a risk factor for malaria transmission: a new analytical approach using ImageJ. Malaria Journal, 13 (94):1–7.
Stone, C. M., Taylor, R. M., Roitberg, B. D. & Foster, W. A. (2009). Sugar deprivation reduces insemination of Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae), despite daily recruitment of adults, and predicts decline in model populations. Journal of Medical Entomology,46:1327–1337. https://doi.org/10.1603/033.046.0611.
Sato, S. (2021). Plasmodium: A brief introduction to the parasites causing human malaria and their basic biology. Journal of Physiological Anthropology, 40:1
Weiss, D.J., Lucas, T.C.D., Nguyen, M., Nandi, A.K., Bisanzio, D., Battle, K.E., et al., (2019). Mapping the global prevalence, incidence, and mortality of Plasmodium falciparum, 2000–17: a spatial and temporal modelling study. Lancet, 394:322–31.
Wogu, M. N., Nduka, F. O. and Wariso, K. T. (2017). Prevalence of uncomplicated and severe malaria in outpatients of a tertiary hospital in Rivers State, Nigeria.Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, 15 (3): 1-5.
Wogu, M.N. and Nduka, F.O. (2016). Malaria parasitaemia among outpatients of Braithwaite Memorial Specialist Hospital (BMSH) Rivers State, Nigeria.International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications,6 (11): 60-62
Wogu, M. and Onosakponome, E.O. (2021). Evaluating prevalence and misdiagnosis of plasmodium using microscopy compared with polymerase chain reaction technique in two tertiary care hospitals in Rivers State, Nigeria. International Journal of Infection.; 8(1): e109411. doi: 10.5812/iji.109411
Wokem, G.N., Christian, S.G. and Onuegbu, B. (2017). Prevalence, Attitude and Perception about Malaria in a Rural Setting in Rivers State, Nigeria. Sokoto Journal of Medical Laboratory Science; 2(3): 167 – 174.
Ye, Y., Louis, V.R., Simboro, S. and Sauerborn, R. (2007). Effect of meteorological factors on clinical malaria risk among children: an assessment using village-based meteorological stations and community-based parasitological survey. BMC Public Health,7:101.
Zinszer, K., Verma, A.D., Charland, K., Brewer, T.F., Brownstein, J.S., Sun, Z. and Buckeridge, D.L. (2012). A scoping review of malaria forecasting: past work and future directions. BMJ Open, 2:e001992.