Main Article Content

Abdassalam A. Azamzam
Abdalahafid J. Alabdi
Esam Bashir Yahya
Japareng Lalung
Mardiana Idayu Ahmad


The massive industrial and agricultural development in the past few years has increased the pollution level of water bodies. Several studies have concluded that the global depletion of freshwater resources will result in difficulties accessing clean water. Plant-based water treatment techniques have attracted great interest in the past few years due to their safety and cost-effectiveness compared with chemical-based techniques. Natural coagulants have been extensively studied in terms of the type of plant and the mechanism of coagulation. Banana is one of the most famous tropical fruits from the Musa genus in the Musaceae family. It is widely consumed in Malaysia, especially Musa acuminata, Musa balbisiana, and Musa paradisiaca, resulting in tremendous amounts of biomass residue, including peels, stems, and leaves, with high potential use for wastewater treatment applications. This review aims to highlight the advantages of natural coagulants and to discuss the potential use of different banana wastes in water treatment applications.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Azamzam, A. A., Alabdi, A. J., Yahya, E. B., Lalung, J., & Ahmad, M. I. (2024). WATER TREATMENT USING NATURAL COAGULANT: A REVIEW ON THE POTENTIAL UTILISATION OF BANANA WASTE . Malaysian Journal of Science, 43(1), 113–122. Retrieved from https://mjs.um.edu.my/index.php/MJS/article/view/29528
Review Articles


Adeleke V. T., Adeniyi, A. A., & Lokhat, D. (2021). Coagulation of organic pollutants by Moringa oleifera protein molecules: In silico approach. Environmental Science: Water Research & Technology, 7(8), 1453–1464.

Ahmad, T., & Danish, M. (2018). Prospects of banana waste utilization in wastewater treatment: A review. Journal of Environmental Management, 206, 330–348.

Aida, S., Noriza, A., Haswani, M., & Mya, S. (2016). A study on reducing fat content of fried banana chips using a sweet pretreatment technique. International Food Research Journal, 23(1), 68.

Alsharari, S. F., Tayel, A. A., & Moussa, S. H. (2018). Soil emendation with nano-fungal chitosan for heavy metals biosorption. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 118, 2265–2268.

Altaher, H., Tarek, E., & Abubeah, R. (2016). An agricultural waste as a novel coagulant aid to treat high turbid water containing humic acids. Global Nest Journal, 18(2), 279–290.

Alwi, H., Idris, J., Musa, M., & Ku Hamid, K. H. (2013). A preliminary study of banana stem juice as a plant-based coagulant for treatment of spent coolant wastewater. Journal of Chemistry, 2013.

Amran, A. H., Zaidi, N. S., Muda, K., & Loan, L. W. (2018). Effectiveness of natural coagulant in coagulation process: A review. International Journal of Engineering & Technology, 7 (3.9), 34–37.

Ang, W. L., & Mohammad, A. W. (2020). State of the art and sustainability of natural coagulants in water and wastewater treatment. Journal of Cleaner Production, (262) 121267.

Anju, S., & Mophin-Kani, K. (2016). Exploring the use of orange peel and neem leaf powder as alternative coagulant in treatment of dairy wastewater. IJSER, 7(4), 238–244.

Antov, M. G., Šćiban, M. B., & Petrović, N. J. (2010). Proteins from common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) seed as a natural coagulant for potential application in water turbidity removal. Bioresource Technology, 101(7), 2167–2172.

Asrafuzzaman, M., Fakhruddin, A., & Hossain, M. A. (2011). Reduction of turbidity of water using locally available natural coagulants. ISRN Microbiology, vol. 2011, 6 pages..

Atamaleki, A., Miranzadeh, M. B., Mostafaii, G. R., Akbari, H., Iranshahi, L., Ghanbari, F., & Salem, A. (2020). Effect of coagulation and sonication on the dissolved air flotation (DAF) process for thickening of biological sludge in wastewater treatment. Environmental Health Engineering And Management Journal, 7(1), 59–65.

Azamzam, A. A., Rafatullah, M., Yahya, E. B., Ahmad, M. I., Lalung, J., Alam, M., & Siddiqui, M. R. (2022). Enhancing the efficiency of banana peel bio-coagulant in turbid and river water treatment applications. Water, 14(16), 2473.

Bahadori, A., Clark, M., & Boyd, B. (2013). Essentials of water systems design in the oil, gas, and chemical processing industries. Springer Science & Business Media.

Bahrodin, M. B., Zaidi, N. S., Hussein, N., Sillanpää, M., Prasetyo, D. D., & Syafiuddin, A. (2021). Recent advances on coagulation-based treatment of wastewater: Transition from chemical to natural coagulant. Current Pollution Reports, 7(3), 379–391.

Bolto, B., & Gregory, J. (2007). Organic polyelectrolytes in water treatment. Water Research, 41(11), 2301–2324.

Chaturvedi, S., Kumari, A., Bhatacharya, A., Sharma, A., Nain, L., & Khare, S. K. (2018). Banana peel waste management for single-cell oil production. Energy, Ecology and Environment, 3(5), 296–303.

Choy, S., Prasad, K., Wu, T., & Ramanan, R. (2015). A review on common vegetables and legumes as promising plant-based natural coagulants in water clarification. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 12(1), 367–390.

Choy, S. Y., Prasad, K. M. N., Wu, T. Y., Raghunandan, M. E., Yang, B., Phang, S.-M., & Ramanan, R. N. (2017). Isolation, characterization and the potential use of starch from jackfruit seed wastes as a coagulant aid for treatment of turbid water. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 24(3), 2876–2889.

Chua, S.-C., Chong, F.-K., Malek, M., Ul Mustafa, M. R., Ismail, N., Sujarwo, W., Ho, Y.-C. (2020). Optimized use of ferric chloride and Sesbania seed gum (SSG) as sustainable coagulant aid for turbidity reduction in drinking water treatment. Sustainability, 12(6), 2273.

Daverey, A., Tiwari, N., & Dutta, K. (2019). Utilization of extracts of Musa paradisica (banana) peels and Dolichos lablab (Indian bean) seeds as low-cost natural coagulants for turbidity removal from water. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 26(33), 34177–34183.

Diddens, D., & Heuer, A. (2019, July 21–26). Ion transport mechanism in polymer electrolytes-Bridging the scales via molecular simulations and theory [Paper presentation]. Electrochemical Conference on Energy and the Environment (ECEE 2019): Bioelectrochemistry and Energy Storage. Scotland Scottish Event Campus.

Duraiprasanth, T., Senthilnathan, S., Senthilkumar, R., Anandi, S., & Harishankar, K. (2022). How the banana farmers are efficient? An evidence from the Tiruchirappalli District of Tamil Nadu. Methodology, 2022. 363-368

Feng, L., Stuart, M. C., & Adachi, Y. (2015). Dynamics of polyelectrolyte adsorption and colloidal flocculation upon mixing studied using mono-dispersed polystyrene latex particles. Advances in Colloid and Interface Science, 226, 101–114.

Feng, Q., Guo, K., Gao, Y., Liu, B., Yue, Q., Shi, W., Gao, B. (2022). Effect of coagulation treatment on sludge dewatering performance: Application of polysilicate and their mechanism. Separation and Purification Technology, 301, 121954.

Fu, Y., Meng, X., Lu, N., Jian, H., & Di, Y. (2019). Characteristics changes in banana peel coagulant during storage process. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 16(12), 7747–7756.

Ghernaout, D., Simoussa, A., Alghamdi, A., Ghernaout, B., Elboughdiri, N., Mahjoubi, A., El-Wakil, A. E.-A. (2018). Combining lime softening with alum coagulation for hard Ghrib dam water conventional treatment. International Journal of Advanced and Applied Sciences, 5(5), 61–70.

Gopika, G., & Kani, K. M. (2016) Accessing the suitability of using banana pith juice as a natural coagulant for textile wastewater treatment.

Gurumath, K., & Suresh, S. (2019). Cicer arietinum is used as natural coagulant for water treatment.

Henderson, R., Parsons, S., & Jefferson, B. (2008). Successful removal of algae through the control of zeta potential. Separation Science and Technology, 43(7), 1653–1666.

Hilal, N., Busca, G., Hankins, N., & Mohammad, A. W. (2004). The use of ultrafiltration and nanofiltration membranes in the treatment of metal-working fluids. Desalination, 167(1–3), 227–238.

Huang, X., Wan, Y., Shi, B., Shi, J., Chen, H., & Liang, H. (2020). Characterization and application of poly-ferric-titanium-silicate-sulfate in disperse and reactive dye wastewaters treatment. Chemosphere, 249, 126129.

Hussain, S., Awad, J., Sarkar, B., Chow, C. W., Duan, J., & van Leeuwen, J. (2019). Coagulation of dissolved organic matter in surface water by novel titanium (III) chloride: Mechanistic surface chemical and spectroscopic characterisation. Separation and Purification Technology, 213, 213–223.

Jayalakshmi, G., Saritha, V., & Dwarapureddi, B. K. (2017). A review on native plant based coagulants for water purification. International Journal of Applied Environmental Sciences, 12(3), 469–487.

Kakoi, B., Kaluli, J. W., Ndiba, P., & Thiong’o, G. (2016). Banana pith as a natural coagulant for polluted river water. Ecological Engineering, 95, 699–705.

Kalemelawa, F., Nishihara, E., Endo, T., Ahmad, Z., Yeasmin, R., Tenywa, M. M., & Yamamoto, S. (2012). An evaluation of aerobic and anaerobic composting of banana peels treated with different inoculums for soil nutrient replenishment. Bioresource Technology, 126, 375–382.

Kandeeban, M., & Malarkodi, M. (2019). Assessment of the farmers attitude towards banana cultivation and export in Coimbatore and Erode districts of Tamil Nadu. International Journal of Farm Sciences, 9(1), 49–51.

Khawas, P., & Deka, S. C. (2016). Isolation and characterization of cellulose nanofibers from culinary banana peel using high-intensity ultrasonication combined with chemical treatment. Carbohydrate Polymers, 137, 608–616.

Kristianto, H. (2017). The potency of Indonesia native plants as natural coagulant: A mini review. Water Conservation Science and Engineering, 2(2), 51–60.

Kumar, V., Othman, N., & Asharuddin, S. (2017). Applications of natural coagulants to treat wastewater− A review [Paper presentation]. MATEC Web of Conferences. Sibiu, Romania, June 7-9, 2017

Liao, Y., Tang, X., Yang, Q., Chen, W., Liu, B., Zhao, C., Zheng, H. (2017). Characterization of an inorganic polymer coagulant and coagulation behavior for humic acid/algae-polluted water treatment: Polymeric zinc–ferric–silicate–sulfate coagulant. RSC Advances, 7(32), 19856–19862.

Ling, D. C., Jewaratnam, J., & Kwong, C. J. (2018). Fenugreek seeds coagulant and banana peels flocculant for the treatment of palm oil mill effluent. Research Communication in Engineering Science & Technology, 1, 18.

Liu, Z., Huang, M., Li, A., & Yang, H. (2017). Flocculation and antimicrobial properties of a cationized starch. Water Research, 119, 57–66.

López, S. S., MacAdam, J., Biddle, M., & Jarvis, P. (2021). The impact of dosing sequence on the removal of the persistent pesticide metaldehyde using powdered activated carbon with coagulation and clarification. Journal of Water Process Engineering, 39, 101756.

Lv, D., Zheng, L., Zhang, H., & Deng, Y. (2018). Coagulation of colloidal particles with ferrate (VI). Environmental Science: Water Research & Technology, 4(5), 701–710.

Mazaheri, R., Ghazani, M. T., & Alighardashi, A. (2018). Effects of Moringa peregrina and ferric chloride (FeCl₃) on water treatment sludge dewatering. Biosciences Biotechnology Research Asia, 15(4), 975–980.

Mazloomi, S., Zarei, A., Nourmoradi, H., Ghodsei, S., Amraei, P., & Haghighat, G. A. (2019). Optimization of coagulation-flocculation process for turbidity removal using response surface methodology: a study in Ilam water treatment plant, Iran. Desalination and Water Treatment, 147, 234–242.

Mohan, S., Vidhya, K., Sivakumar, C., Sugnathi, M., Shanmugavadivu, V., & Devi, M. (2019). Textile waste water treatment by using natural coagulant (Neem-Azadirachta India). International Research Journal of Multidisciplinary Technovation, 1(6), 636–642.

Mohd-Salleh, S. N. A., Mohd-Zin, N. S., & Othman, N. (2019). A review of wastewater treatment using natural material and its potential as aid and composite coagulant. Sains Malaysiana, 48(1), 155–164.

Mokhtar, N., Priyatharishini, M., & Kristanti, R. (2019). Study on the effectiveness of banana peel coagulant in turbidity reduction of synthetic wastewater. International Journal of Engineering Technology and Sciences, 6(1), 82–90.

Mosa, Z. M., & Khalil, A. F. (2015). The effect of banana peels supplemented diet on acute liver failure rats. Annals of Agricultural Sciences, 60(2), 373–379.

Mumbi, A. W., Fengting, L., & Karanja, A. (2018). Sustainable treatment of drinking water using natural coagulants in developing countries: A case of informal settlements in Kenya. Water Utility Journal, 18, 1–11.

Naceradska, J., Novotna, K., Cermakova, L., Cajthaml, T., & Pivokonsky, M. (2019). Investigating the coagulation of non-proteinaceous algal organic matter: Optimizing coagulation performance and identification of removal mechanisms. Journal of Environmental Sciences, 79, 25–34.

Namasivayam, C., Kanchana, N., & Yamuna, R. (1993). Waste banana pith as adsorbent for the removal of rhodamine-B from aqueous solutions. Waste Management, 13(1), 89–95.

Namasivayam, C., Prabha, D., & Kumutha, M. (1998). Removal of direct red and acid brilliant blue by adsorption on to banana pith. Bioresource Technology, 64(1), 77–79.

Nan, J., Yao, M., Chen, T., Li, S., Wang, Z., & Feng, G. (2016). Breakage and regrowth of flocs formed by sweep coagulation using additional coagulant of poly aluminium chloride and non-ionic polyacrylamide. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 23(16), 16336–16348.

Nandini, G. M., & Sheba, M. C. (2016). Emanating trends in the usage of bio-coagulants in potable water treatment: A review. Seeds, 99, 10.

Nath, A., Mishra, A., & Pande, P. P. (2021). A review natural polymeric coagulants in wastewater treatment. Materials Today: Proceedings, 46, 6113–6117.

Nayak, S., Sajankila, S. P., & Rao, C. V. (2018). Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles from banana pith extract and its evaluation of antibacterial activity and catalytic reduction of malachite green dye. The Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Food Sciences, 7(6), 641.

Olaoye, R., Afolayan, O., Mustapha, O., & Adeleke, H. (2018). The efficacy of banana peel activated carbon in the removal of cyanide and selected metals from cassava processing wastewater. Advances in Research, 1–12.

Pathak, P. D., & Mandavgane, S. A. (2015). Preparation and characterization of raw and carbon from banana peel by microwave activation: Application in citric acid adsorption. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, 3(4), 2435–2447.

Pelissari, F. M., Andrade-Mahecha, M. M., do Amaral Sobral, P. J., & Menegalli, F. C. (2017). Nanocomposites based on banana starch reinforced with cellulose nanofibers isolated from banana peels. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 505, 154–167.

Rasool, M. A., Tavakoli, B., Chaibakhsh, N., Pendashteh, A. R., & Mirroshandel, A. S. (2016). Use of a plant-based coagulant in coagulation–ozonation combined treatment of leachate from a waste dumping site. Ecological Engineering, 90, 431–437.

Ravindra, K., Mor, S., & Pinnaka, V. L. (2019). Water uses, treatment, and sanitation practices in rural areas of Chandigarh and its relation with waterborne diseases. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 26(19), 19512–19522.

Rizal, S., Lai, T. K., Muksin, U., Olaiya, N., Abdullah, C., Yahya, E. B., Abdul Khalil, H. (2020). Properties of macroalgae biopolymer films reinforcement with polysaccharide microfibre. Polymers, 12(11), 2554.

Salmasi, F., Nouri, M., & Abraham, J. (2020). Upstream cutoff and downstream filters to control of seepage in dams. Water Resources Management, 34(12):1-18.

Shi, Y., Fan, M., Brown, R. C., Sung, S., & Van Leeuwen, J. H. (2004). Comparison of corrosivity of polymeric sulfate ferric and ferric chloride as coagulants in water treatment. Chemical Engineering and Processing: Process Intensification, 43(8), 955–964.

Shrestha, A., Naidu, G., Johir, M. A. H., Kandasamy, J., & Vigneswaran, S. (2017). Performance of flocculation titanium salts for seawater reverse osmosis pretreatment. Desalination and Water Treatment. 98 (2017) 92–97

Sillanpää, M., Ncibi, M. C., Matilainen, A., & Vepsäläinen, M. (2018). Removal of natural organic matter in drinking water treatment by coagulation: A comprehensive review. Chemosphere, 190, 54–71.

Soluri, J. (2021). Banana cultures: Agriculture, consumption, and environmental change in Honduras and the United States. University of Texas Press.

Subashree, R., Nagaraj, S., & Anusha, G. (2018). Investigation of coagulation activity of lemon and banana peel powder in water treatment. ICRRDESH-17. 46-49

Sulaiman, M., Zhigila, D. A., Mohammed, K., Umar, D. M., Aliyu, B., & Abd Manan, F. (2017). Moringa oleifera seed as alternative natural coagulant for potential application in water treatment: A review. J. Adv. Rev. Sci. Res, 30(1), 1–11.

Sun, Y., Zhu, C., Zheng, H., Sun, W., Xu, Y., Xiao, X., . . . Liu, C. (2017). Characterization and coagulation behavior of polymeric aluminum ferric silicate for high-concentration oily wastewater treatment. Chemical Engineering Research and Design, 119, 23–32.

Teh, C. Y., Wu, T. Y., & Juan, J. C. (2014). Potential use of rice starch in coagulation–flocculation process of agro-industrial wastewater: Treatment performance and flocs characterization. Ecological Engineering, 71, 509–519.

Teixeira, M. R., Camacho, F. P., Sousa, V. S., & Bergamasco, R. (2017). Green technologies for cyanobacteria and natural organic matter water treatment using natural based products. Journal of Cleaner Production, 162, 484–490.

Theodoro, J. P., Lenz, G. F., Zara, R. F., & Bergamasco, R. (2013). Coagulants and natural polymers: Perspectives for the treatment of water. Plastic and Polymer Technology, 2(3), 55–62.

Ting, W. C., Loh, Z. Z., Bahrodin, M. B., Awang, N. A., & Kadier, A. (2022). Assessment and optimization of a natural coagulant (Musa paradisiaca) peels for domestic wastewater treatment. Environmental and Toxicology Management, 2(1), 7–13.

Wan, Y., Huang, X., Shi, B., Shi, J., & Hao, H. (2019). Reduction of organic matter and disinfection byproducts formation potential by titanium, aluminum and ferric salts coagulation for micro-polluted source water treatment. Chemosphere, 219, 28–35.

Wang, W., Yue, Q., Li, R., Bu, F., Shen, X., & Gao, B. (2018). Optimization of coagulation pre-treatment for alleviating ultrafiltration membrane fouling: The role of floc properties on Al species. Chemosphere, 200, 86–92.

Wang, X., Li, M., Song, X., Chen, Z., Wu, B., & Zhang, S. (2016). Preparation and evaluation of titanium-based xerogel as a promising coagulant for water/wastewater treatment. Environmental Science & Technology, 50(17), 9619–9626.

Wang, X., Wang, X., Wei, Z., & Zhang, S. (2018). Potent removal of cyanobacteria with controlled release of toxic secondary metabolites by a titanium xerogel coagulant. Water Research, 128, 341–349.

Yabuki, L. N. M., Luko Sulato, K. S., Boniolo, M. R., Menegário, A. A., & Garcia, M. L. (2020). Diffusive gradients in thin films based on banana peel and moringa seeds binding gel disks for in situ measurement of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn. International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry, 102(4):1-25

Yahya, E. B., Abdulsamad, M. A., Allaq, A. A., Abdoallah, T., & Ermese, E. (2020). The effect of natural and petroleum based materials on the growth rate and antibiotic sensitivity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, 7(5), 295–298.

Yahya, E. B., Alfallous, K. A., Wali, A., Hameid, S., & Zwaid, H. (2020). Growth rate and antibiotic sensitivity effect of some natural and petroleum based materials on Staphylococcus aureus. International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, 7(5), 7–11.

Yong, M. Y., & Ismail, N. (2016). Optimisation of Hibiscus sabdariffa as a natural coagulant to treat Congo red in wastewater. Journal of Engineering Science and Technology, 11, 153–165.

Yushananta, P., & Ahyanti, M. (2022). Utilization of banana pith starch from agricultural waste as a cationic coagulant. Jurnal Aisyah: Jurnal Ilmu Kesehatan, 7(1), 165–172.

Zhang, W., Chen, Z., Cao, B., Du, Y., Wang, C., Wang, D., Xia, H. (2017). Improvement of wastewater sludge dewatering performance using titanium salt coagulants (TSCs) in combination with magnetic nano-particles: Significance of titanium speciation. Water Research, 110, 102–111.