Main Article Content

Siti Nor Atika Baharin
Kavirajaa Pandian Sambasevam
Nur Farahin Suhaimi
Arifutzzaman Rahat
Saidur Rahman
Shafira Nadira Musiran


Polypyrrole/graphene oxide (PPy/GO) was synthesized and evaluated as an effective photocatalyst to degrade 2-chlorophenol from aqueous solution under solar light irradiation. The PPy/GO composite was synthesized by the incorporation of PPy with the GO using Hummer’s method(s). Three different compositions of PPy/GO composites were prepared with the varying ratio of PPy and GO (1:1, 1:4, 9:1). Physicochemical properties of pristine PPy, GO and as synthesized PPy/GO composites were characterized using FTIR, UV-Vis, XRD, and SEM with EDX. The characterizations results revealed that PPy was successfully integrated with the GO in the PPy/GO composites. The photodegradation of 10 ppm of 2-chlorophenol has been observed under sunlight for 3 hours with the exposure contact time of 180 minutes before being tested with UV-Vis in order to obtain the percentage of degradation in the sunlight. The degradation study exhibited that PPy/GO composite with the ratio of 1:1 exhibited the highest percentage of degradation of ~ 71.08 and 68.96 % at the time of 180 minutes and 3 hours respectively.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

Original Articles


Alshabanat, M. N., & Al-Anazy, M. M. (2018). An Experimental Study of Photocatalytic Degradation of Congo Red Using Polymer Nanocomposite Films. Journal of Chemistry, 2018, 9651850 (1-8).
Bustos-Ramirez, K., Barrera-Diaz, C. E., De Icaza, M., Martínez-Hernández, A. L., & Velasco-Santos, C. (2015). Photocatalytic activity in phenol removal of water from graphite and graphene oxides: Effect of degassing and chemical oxidation in the synthesis process. Journal of Chemistry, 2015, 1–10.
Cao, J., Wang, Y., Chen, J., Li, X., Walsh, F. C., Ouyang, J. H., … Zhou, Y. (2015). Three-dimensional graphene oxide/polypyrrole composite electrodes fabricated by one-step electrodeposition for high performance supercapacitors. Journal of Materials Chemistry A, 3(27), 14445–14457.
Chougule, M. A., Pawar, S. G., Godse, P. R., Mulik, R. N., Sen, S., & Patil, V. B. (2011). Synthesis and Characterization of Polypyrrole (PPy) Thin Films. Soft Nanoscience Letters, 01(01), 6–10.
Deng, M., Yang, X., Silke, M., Qiu, W., Xu, M., Borghs, G., & Chen, H. (2011). Electrochemical deposition of polypyrrole/graphene oxide composite on microelectrodes towards tuning the electrochemical properties of neural probes. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, 158(1), 176–184.
Emiru, T. F., & Ayele, D. W. (2017). Controlled synthesis, characterization and reduction of graphene oxide: A convenient method for large scale production. Egyptian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 4(1), 74–79.
Ferenets, M., & Harlin, A. (2007). Chemical in situ polymerization of polypyrrole on poly(methyl metacrylate) substrate. Thin Solid Films, 515(13), 5324–5328.
Gascho, J. L. S., Costa, S. F., Recco, A. A. C., & Pezzin, S. H. (2019). Graphene Oxide Films Obtained by Vacuum Filtration: X-Ray Diffraction Evidence of Crystalline Reorganization. Journal of Nanomaterials, 2019, 5963148 (1-12).
He, D., Peng, Z., Gong, W., Luo, Y., Zhao, P., & Kong, L. (2015). Mechanism of a green graphene oxide reduction with reusable potassium carbonate. RSC Advances, 5(16), 11966–11972.
Igbinosa, E. O., Odjadjare, E. E., Chigor, V. N., Igbinosa, I. H., Emoghene, A. O., Ekhaise, F. O., … Montoliu, C. (2013). Toxicological Profile of Chlorophenols and Their Derivatives in the Environment: The Public Health Perspective. The Scientific World Journal, 2013, 11.
Konwer, S., Boruah, R., & Dolui, S. K. (2011). Studies on conducting polypyrrole/graphene oxide composites as supercapacitor electrode. Journal of Electronic Materials, 40(11), 2248–2255.
Li, S., Lu, X., Xue, Y., Lei, J., Zheng, T., & Wang, C. (2012). Fabrication of Polypyrrole/Graphene Oxide Composite Nanosheets and Their Applications for Cr(VI) Removal in Aqueous Solution. PLoS ONE, 7(8), e43328.
Lü, K., Zhao, G., & Wang, X. (2012). A brief review of graphene-based material synthesis and its application in environmental pollution management. Chinese Science Bulletin, 57(11), 1223–1234.
Majumdar, S., Nath, J., & Mahanta, D. (2018). Surface modified polypyrrole for the efficient removal of phenolic compounds from aqueous medium. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, 6(2), 2588–2596.
Mitra, M., Ahamed, S. T., Ghosh, A., Mondal, A., Kargupta, K., Ganguly, S., & Banerjee, D. (2019). Polyaniline/Reduced Graphene Oxide Composite-Enhanced Visible-Light-Driven Photocatalytic Activity for the Degradation of Organic Dyes. ACS Omega, 4(1), 1623–1635.
Molina, J., Zille, A., Fernández, J., Souto, A. P., Bonastre, J., & Cases, F. (2015). Conducting fabrics of polyester coated with polypyrrole and doped with graphene oxide. Synthetic Metals, 204, 110–121.
Munawaroh, H., Sari, P. L., Wahyuningsih, S., & Ramelan, A. H. (2018). The photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue using graphene oxide (GO)/ZnO nanodrums. In AIP Conference Proceedings (Vol. 2014, p. 020119). American Institute of Physics Inc.
Naknikham, U. ;, Magnacca, G. ;, Qiao, A. ;, Kristensen, P. K., Boffa, V. ;, & Yue, Y. (2019). Phenol Abatement by Titanium Dioxide Photocatalysts: Effect of The Graphene Oxide Loading. Nanomaterials, 9(7), 947 (1-11).
Rashid, S., Mazlan, N. A., Sapari, J. M., Raoov Ramachandran, M., & Pandian Sambasevam, K. (2018). Fabrication of magnetic nanoparticles coated with polyaniline for removal of 2, 4-dinitrophenol. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1123, 012015.
Sani, N. A. N. M., Mazlan, N. A., Mohamed, A. H., Sambasevam, K. P., Jantan, K. A., Ramachandran, M. R., & Sapari, J. M. (2018). Removal of 2,4-dinitrophenol (2,4-DNP) by using magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) coated with polypyrrole (PPy). IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 458(1), 012007.
Shahabuddin, S., Muhamad Sarih, N., Mohamad, S., & Joon Ching, J. (2016). SrTiO3 Nanocube-Doped Polyaniline Nanocomposites with Enhanced Photocatalytic Degradation of Methylene Blue under Visible Light. Polymers, 8(2), 27.
Shrikrushna, S., Kher, J. A., & Kulkarni, M. V. (2015). Influence of Dodecylbenzene Sulfonic Acid Doping on Structural, Morphological, Electrical and Optical Properties on Polypyrrole/3C-SiC Nanocomposites. J Nanomed Nanotechnol, 6(5), 313.
Su, C., Wang, L., Xu, L., & Zhang, C. (2013). Synthesis of a novel ferrocene-contained polypyrrole derivative and its performance as a cathode material for Li-ion batteries. Electrochimica Acta, 104, 302–307.
Tseng, K.-H., Chung, M.-Y., Chang, C.-Y., & Cheng, T.-S. (2017). A Study of Photocatalysis of Methylene Blue of TiO 2 Fabricated by Electric Spark Discharge Method. Journal of Nanomaterials, 2017, 9346201.
Vadivel, S., Theerthagiri, J., Madhavan, J., & Maruthamani, D. (2016). Synthesis of polyaniline/graphene oxide composite via ultrasonication method for photocatalytic applications. Materials Focus, 5(4), 393-397.
Wu, B., Zhang, X., Huang, B., Zhao, Y., Cheng, C., & Chen, H. (2017). High-Performance wireless ammonia gas sensors based on reduced graphene oxide and Nano-Silver ink hybrid material loaded on a patch antenna. Sensors (Switzerland), 17(9), 2070.
Yang, S., Shen, C., Liang, Y., Tong, H., He, W., Shi, X., … Gao, H. J. (2011). Graphene nanosheets-polypyrrole hybrid material as a highly active catalyst support for formic acid electro-oxidation. Nanoscale, 3(8), 3277–3284.
Yu, F., Bai, X., Yang, C., Xu, L., & Ma, J. (2019). Reduced Graphene Oxide–P25 Nanocomposites as Efficient Photocatalysts for Degradation of Bisphenol A in Water. Catalysts, 9(7), 607.
Yuan, X., Floresyona, D., Aubert, P. H., Bui, T. T., Remita, S., Ghosh, S., … Remita, H. (2019). Photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutant with polypyrrole nanostructures under UV and visible light. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 242, 284–292.
Zhao, Y., Xia, K., Zhang, Z., Zhu, Z., Guo, Y., & Qu, Z. (2019). Facile synthesis of polypyrrole-functionalized CoFe 2 O 4 @SiO 2 for removal for Hg(II). Nanomaterials, 9(3), 455 (1-21).