Main Article Content

Vandana Singh
Amarjeet Kaur
N. C. Gupta


Water scarcity is an emerging problem across the globe and therefore planners have started promoting the concept of reuse in sustainable planning for conserving water resources. The centralized reuse of treated wastewater is an expensive option and hence decentralized reuse of treated greywater (light and dark) needs to be popularized through simple inexpensive methods like filtration and adsorption. Greywater recycling extends a sustainable pathway in which freshwater resource is conserved and wastewater generation is minimized. Moreover, light greywater can be successfully treated through low-tech filters owing to its weaker strength. In this study, the potential of using low cost waste material as filtering media for treating light greywater was analyzed and possibility of providing prior preliminary treatment to light greywater entering media was assessed using geotextile. The experimental results showed that geotextile used in the study was efficient enough in removing considerable amount of TSS. The study investigates that the low cost media like Rice - husk, Rice husk ash, Sugarcane bagasse, Sugarcane bagasse ash used in treating light greywater could remove BOD, COD, TSS, NO3 and PO4 partially while crushed glass could only remove considerable amount of BOD, COD and TSS.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

Original Articles


Abdel-Shafy, H. I., Al-Sulaiman, A. M., & Mansour, M. S. (2015). Anaerobic/aerobic treatment of greywater via UASB and MBR for unrestricted reuse. Water Science and Technology, 71(4), 630-637.

Ahmaruzzaman, M., & Gupta, V. K. (2011). Rice husk and its ash as low-cost adsorbents in water and wastewater treatment. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 50(24), 13589-13613.

Alagumuthu, G., & Rajan, M. (2010). Kinetic and equilibrium studies on fluoride removal by zirconium (iv)-impregnated groundnut shell carbon. Hemijska industrija, 64(4), 295-304.

Ali, I., Asim, M., & Khan, T. A. (2012). Low cost adsorbents for the removal of organic pollutants from wastewater. Journal of environmental management, 113, 170-183.

Al-Mashaqbeh, O. A., Ghrair, A. M., & Megdal, S. B. (2012). Grey water reuse for agricultural purposes in the Jordan Valley: Household survey results in Deir Alla. Water, 4(3), 580-596.

Babarinde, A., & Onyiaocha, G. O. (2016). Equilibrium sorption of divalent metal ions onto groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) shell: kinetics, isotherm and thermodynamics. Chem. Int, 2(3).

Chatterjee, P., Ghangrekar, M. M., & Rao, S. (2016). Low efficiency of sewage treatment plants due to unskilled operations in India. Environmental chemistry letters, 14(3), 407-416.

Dada, A. O., Olalekan, A. P., Olatunya, A. M., & Dada, O. J. I. J. C. (2012). Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin–Radushkevich isotherms studies of equilibrium sorption of Zn2+ unto phosphoric acid modified rice husk. IOSR Journal of Applied Chemistry, 3(1), 38-45.

Dalahmeh, S. S., Jönsson, H., Hylander, L. D., Hui, N., Yu, D., & Pell, M. (2014). Dynamics and functions of bacterial communities in bark, charcoal and sand filters treating greywater. Water research, 54, 21-32.

Deokar, S. K., & Mandavgane, S. A. (2015). Rice husk ash for fast removal of 2, 4-
dichlorophenoxyacetic acid from aqueous solution. Adsorption Science & Technology, 33(5), 429-440.

De Moraes Rocha, G. J., Nascimento, V. M., Gonçalves, A. R., Silva, V. F. N., & Martín, C. (2015). Influence of mixed sugarcane bagasse samples evaluated by elemental and p de Moraes hysical–chemical composition. Industrial Crops and Products, 64, 52-58.

Ding, D., Zhao, Y., Yang, S., Shi, W., Zhang, Z., Lei, Z., & Yang, Y. (2013). Adsorption of cesium from aqueous solution using agricultural residue–walnut shell: equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic modeling studies. Water research, 47(7), 2563-2571.

Farzana, R., & Sahajwalla, V. (2015). Novel recycling to transform automotive waste glass and plastics into SiC-bearing resource by silica reduction. Journal of Sustainable Metallurgy, 1(1), 65-74.

Furumai, H. (2008). Rainwater and reclaimed wastewater for sustainable urban water use. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, 33(5), 340-346.

Gao, B. Y., Xu, X., Wang, Y., Yue, Q. Y., & Xu, X. M. (2009). Preparation and characteristics of quaternary amino anion exchanger from wheat residue. Journal of hazardous materials, 165(1-3), 461-468.

Gupta, M., Gupta, H., & Kharat, D. S. (2018). Adsorption of Cu (II) by low cost adsorbents and the cost analysis. Environmental technology & innovation, 10, 91-101.

Gupta, V. K., Carrott, P. J. M., Ribeiro Carrott, M. M. L., & Suhas. (2009). Low-cost adsorbents: growing approach to wastewater treatment—a review. Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology, 39(10), 783-842.

Hagström, E. L., Lyles, C., Pattanayek, M., DeShields, B., & Berkman, M. P. (2016). Produced water—emerging challenges, risks, and opportunities. Environmental Claims Journal, 28(2), 122-139.

Hale, S. E., Alling, V., Martinsen, V., Mulder, J., Breedveld, G. D., & Cornelissen, G. (2013). The sorption and desorption of phosphate-P, ammonium-N and nitrate-N in cacao shell and corn cob biochars. Chemosphere, 91(11), 1612-1619.

Hamoda, M. F., Al-Ghusain, I., & Al-Mutairi, N. Z. (2004). Sand filtration of wastewater for tertiary treatment and water reuse. Desalination, 164(3), 203-211.

Healy, M. G., Burke, P., & Rodgers, M. (2010). The use of laboratory sand, soil and crushed-glass filter columns for polishing domestic-strength synthetic wastewater that has undergone secondary treatment. Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A, 45(12), 1635-1641.

Hena, S., Atikah, S., & Ahmad, H. (2015). Removal of phosphate ion from water using chemically modified biomass of sugarcane bagasse. Int. J. Eng. Sci, 4, 51-62.

Homagai, P. L., Ghimire, K. N., & Inoue, K. (2010). Adsorption behavior of heavy metals onto chemically
modified sugarcane bagasse. Bioresource Technology, 101(6), 2067-2069.

Hong, C. O., Owens, V. N., Kim, Y. G., Lee, S. M., Park, H. C., Kim, K. K., ... & Kim, P. J. (2014). Comparative effect of two different types of phosphate on cadmium uptake by radish (Raphanus sativa L.) grown in arable soil affected by mine activity. Communications in soil science and plant analysis, 45(8), 1133-1148.

Katare, V. D., & Madurwar, M. V. (2017). Experimental characterization of sugarcane biomass ash–A review. Construction and Building Materials, 152, 1-15.

Katukiza, A. Y., Ronteltap, M., Niwagaba, C. B., Kansiime, F., & Lens, P. N. L. (2014). Grey water treatment in urban slums by a filtration system: Optimisation of the filtration medium. Journal of environmental management, 146, 131-141.

Kujawa-Roeleveld, K., Elmitwalli, T., & Zeeman, G. (2006). Enhanced primary treatment of concentrated black water and kitchen residues within DESAR concept using two types of anaerobic digesters. Water Science and Technology, 53(9), 159-168.

Kumar, U., & Bandyopadhyay, M. (2006). Sorption of cadmium from aqueous solution using pretreated rice husk. Bioresource technology, 97(1), 104-109.

Kumar, U. (2006). Agricultural products and by-products as a low cost adsorbent for heavy metal removal from water and wastewater: A review. Scientific research and essays, 1(2), 033-037.
Kyzas, G. Z., & Kostoglou, M. (2014). Green adsorbents for wastewaters: a critical review. Materials, 7(1), 333-364.

Lahti, R., Bergna, D., Romar, H., Tuuttila, T., Hu, T., & Lassi, U. (2017). Physico-chemical properties and use of waste biomass-derived activated carbons. Chemical Engineering Transactions, 57.

Latrach, L., Ouazzani, N., Masunaga, T., Hejjaj, A., Bouhoum, K., Mahi, M., & Mandi, L. (2016). Domestic wastewater disinfection by combined treatment using multi-soil-layering system and sand filters (MSL–SF): A laboratory pilot study. Ecological Engineering, 91, 294-301.

Li, Y.F., Wang, L.A., Zhang, Z.E., Hu, X.Y., Cheng, Y., Zhong, C., 2018. Carbon dioxide absorption from biogas by amino acid salt promoted potassium carbonate solutions in a hollow fiber membrane contactor: a numerical study. Energy Fuel. 32 (3), 3637–3646

Loganathan, P., Vigneswaran, S., & Kandasamy, J. (2013). Enhanced removal of nitrate from water using surface modification of adsorbents–a review. Journal of environmental management, 131, 363-374.

Mathurasa, L., & Damrongsiri, S. (2018). Low cost and easy rice husk modification to efficiently enhance ammonium and nitrate adsorption. International Journal of Recycling of Organic Waste in Agriculture, 7(2), 143-151.

Miszkowska, A., Lenart, S., & Koda, E. (2017). Changes of permeability of nonwoven geotextiles due to clogging and cyclic water flow in laboratory conditions. Water, 9(9), 660.

Naiya, T. K., Chowdhury, P., Bhattacharya, A. K., & Das, S. K. (2009). Saw dust and neem bark as low-cost natural biosorbent for adsorptive removal of Zn (II) and Cd (II) ions from aqueous solutions. Chemical Engineering Journal, 148(1), 68-79.

Namasivayam, C., & Sangeetha, D. (2008). Application of coconut coir pith for the removal of sulfate and other anions from water. Desalination, 219(1-3), 1-13.

Ngia, N. H., Zenitova, L. A., & Zien, L. K. (2019). Complex processing of rice production waste with simultaneous production of silicon dioxide, lignin and cellulose. Problems of regional ecology, (2) (Original in Russian).

Noutsopoulos, C., Andreadakis, A., Kouris, N., Charchousi, D., Mendrinou, P., Galani, A. & Koumaki, E. (2018). Greywater characterization and loadings–physicochemical treatment to promote onsite reuse. Journal of environmental management, 216, 337-346.

Orlando, U. S., Okuda, T., Baes, A. U., Nishijima, W., & Okada, M. (2003). Chemical properties of anion-exchangers prepared from waste natural materials. Reactive and functional polymers, 55(3), 311-318.

Patterson, J. (1989). Industrial wastes reduction. Environmental science & technology, 23(9), 1032-1038.

Penn, R., Hadari, M., & Friedler, E. (2012). Evaluation of the effects of greywater reuse on domestic wastewater quality and quantity. Urban Water Journal, 9(3), 137-148.

Phan, N. H., Rio, S., Faur, C., Le Coq, L., Le Cloirec, P., & Nguyen, T. H. (2006). Production of fibrous activated carbons from natural cellulose (jute, coconut) fibers for water treatment applications. Carbon, 44(12), 2569-2577.

Samayamanthula, D. R., Sabarathinam, C., & Bhandary, H. (2019). Treatment and effective utilization of greywater. Applied Water Science, 9(4), 90.

Schuetze, T., & Chelleri, L. (2013). Integrating decentralized rainwater management in urban planning and design: Flood resilient and sustainable water management using the example of coastal cities in the Netherlands and Taiwan. Water, 5(2), 593-616.

Singh, V., Kaur, A., Ghawana, T., & Gupta, N. C. (2018). Feasibility Study of Treatment Technologies for Greywater to Enhance Water Security. International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, 13(6), 4042-4048.

Su, H., Liu, G., He, M., & Tan, F. (2015). A biorefining process: Sequential, combinational lignocellulose pretreatment procedure for improving biobutanol production from sugarcane bagasse. Bioresource technology, 187, 149-160.

Tao, H. C., Zhang, H. R., Li, J. B., & Ding, W. Y. (2015). Biomass based activated carbon obtained from sludge and sugarcane bagasse for removing lead ion from wastewater. Bioresource technology, 192, 611-617.

Thind, H. S., Sharma, S., Vashistha, M., & Singh, G. (2012). Land application of rice husk ash, bagasse ash and coal fly ash: Effects on crop productivity and nutrient uptake in rice–wheat system on an alkaline loamy sand. Field Crops Research, 135, 137-144.

Thomas, B. S. (2018). Green concrete partially comprised of rice husk ash as a supplementary cementitious material–A comprehensive review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 82, 3913-3923.

Thompson, K., Cook, S. M., & Summers, R. S. (2017, December). Adsorption with Biochar or Activated Carbon as Treatment Processes for Greywater Reuse. In AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts.

Tony, M. A., Parker, H. L., & Clark, J. H. (2016). Treatment of laundrette wastewater using Starbon and Fenton's reagent. Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A, 51(11), 974-979.

Wang, Y. Y., Lu, H. H., Liu, Y. X., & Yang, S. M. (2016). Removal of
phosphate from aqueous solution by SiO 2–biochar nanocomposites prepared by pyrolysis of vermiculite treated algal biomass. Rsc Advances, 6(87), 83534-83546.

Yadav, D., Kapur, M., Kumar, P., & Mondal, M. K. (2015). Adsorptive removal of phosphate from aqueous solution using rice husk and fruit juice residue. Process Safety and Environmental Protection, 94, 402-409.

Yaman, C., Martin, J. P., & Korkut, E. (2006). Effects of wastewater filtration on geotextile permeability. Geosynthetics International, 13(3), 87-97.

Young, J. C. (1985). Operating problems with wastewater filters. Journal (Water Pollution Control Federation), 22-29.

Yu, C., & Han, X. (2015, October). Adsorbent Material Used In Water Treatment-A Review. In 2015 2nd International Workshop on Materials Engineering and Computer Sciences. Atlantis Press.

Zabihi, M., Asl, A. H., & Ahmadpour, A. H. M. A. D. (2010). Studies on adsorption of mercury from aqueous solution on activated carbons prepared from walnut shell. Journal of hazardous materials, 174(1-3), 251-256.