Main Article Content

Wenyuh Koh
Y. Norma Rashid


Studies on human and primate interactions have been very popular but this is the first of such work examining such local scenario within a city campus in Malaysia. A study conducted in University of Malaya (UM) campus on the human and macaque interface showed that undergraduates from Year 1 to Year 4 had similar perceptions and experiences on macaque disturbances and consequences. It was significantly perceived that foraging caused the macaques to enter residential colleges or faculties. High percentage of students opted for macaque translocation to curtail the macaque nuisances. The 2 focused macaque groups consumed different proportions of natural and artificial food resources from their natural habitat, scavenged or offered. Natural food consumed by the macaques consisted of petioles, leaves and fruits for different species of plants whereas artificial food was types consumed by human. The major anthropogenic disturbance on the macaque groups was human presence (approach or nearby). Findings from this work conclusively revealed that the commonly perceived undesirable impact from macaques onto human also happened reciprocally from human to macaques.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

Original Articles


Altmann, J. (1974). Observational study of behaviour: sampling methods. Behaviour 49(3-4): 227-266, doi: 10.1163/156853974X00534

Altmann, J. and Muruthi, P. (1988). Differences in daily life between semiprovisioned and wild‐feeding baboons. American Journal of Primatology 15: 213-221,doi:10.1002/ajp.1350150304

Anuar, S. (2011). Social Organization and Mating System of MacacaFascicularis (Long Tailed Macaques). International Journal of Biology 3(2): 23-31, doi: 10.5539/ijb.v3n2p23

Aureli, F. (1992). Post-conflict behaviour among wild long-tailed macaques (Macacafascicularis). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology31(5): 329-337, doi: 10.1007/BF00177773

Berenstain, L. (1986). Responses of Long-Tailed Macaques to Drought and Fire in Eastern Borneo: A Preliminary Report. Biotropica18(3): 257-262, doi:10.2307/2388494

Brent, L., &Veira, Y. (2002). Social Behavior of Captive Indochinese and Insular Long- Tailed Macaques (Macacafascicularis) Following Transfer to a New Facility. International Journal of Primatology, 23(1), 147-159, doi: 10.1023/A:1013206125884

de Ruiter, J.R.,van Hooff, J.A.R.A.M.& Scheffrahn, W. (1994). Social and

Genetic Aspects of Paternity in Wild Long-Tailed Macaques (Macaca fascicularis). Behaviou, 129(3-4): 203-224, doi: 10.1163/156853994X00613

Fa, J. E. (1992), Visitor‐directed aggression among the Gibraltar macaques. Zoo Biology 11(1): 43-52, doi:10.1002/zoo.1430110106

Fooden, J. (1995). Systematics review of Southeast Asian longtail macaques, Macaca fascicularis (Raffles, 1821). Fieldiana Zoology New Series 81: 2-3.

Fuentes, A. (2006). Human-nonhuman primate interconnections and their relevance to anthropology. Ecological and Environmental Anthropology (University of Georgia) 2(2): 1-11

Fuentes, A. (2007). Monkey and Human Interconnections: The Wild, the Captive, and the In-between. In R. Cassidy & M. Mullin (Eds.). Where the Wild Things Are Now: Domestication Reconsidered (pp. 123–146). London: Bloomsbury Academic., doi: 10.5040/

Fuentes, A. (2012). Ethnoprimatology and the anthropology of the human-primate interface. Annual Review of Anthropology 41: 101-117, doi: 10.1146/annurev-anthro-092611-145808

Fuentes, A. and Hockings, K. J. (2010), The ethnoprimatological approach in primatology. American Journal of Primatology 72: 841-847, doi:10.1002/ajp.20844

Fuentes, A., &Gamerl, S. (2005). Disproportionate participation by age/sex classes in aggressive interactions between long‐tailed macaques (Macacafascicularis) and human tourists at Padangtegal monkey forest, Bali, Indonesia. American Journal of Primatology 66(2): 197-204, doi: 10.1002/ajp.20138

Fuentes, A., Rompis, A., Arta Putra, I., Watiniasih, N., Suartha, I., Soma, I., Selamet, W. (2011). Macaque behavior at the human–monkey interface: The activity and demography of semi-free-ranging Macaca fascicularis at Padangtegal, Bali, Indonesia. In A. Fuentes (Author) & M. Gumert & L. Jones-Engel (Eds.), Monkeys on the Edge: Ecology and Management of Long-Tailed Macaques and their Interface with Humans (Cambridge Studies in Biological and Evolutionary Anthropology, pp. 159-182). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, doi:10.1017/CBO9780511974434.008

Gumert, M. D. (2007). Grooming and Infant Handling Interchange in Macaca fascicularis: The Relationship Between Infant Supply and Grooming Payment. International Journal of Primatology 28(5): 1059-1074, doi: 10.1007/s10764-007-9202-0

Gumert, M. (2011). The common monkey of Southeast Asia: Long-tailed macaque populations, ethnophoresy, and their occurrence in human environments. In A. Fuentes (Author) & M. Gumert& L. Jones-Engel (Eds.), Monkeys on the Edge: Ecology and Management of Long-Tailed Macaques and their Interface with Humans (Cambridge Studies in Biological and Evolutionary Anthropology, pp. 3-44). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511974434.003

Hadi, I., Suryobroto, B., & Perwitasari-Farajallah, D. (2007). Food preference of semi-provisioned macaques based on feeding duration and foraging party size. HAYATI Journal of Biosciences 14(1): 13-17, doi: 10.4308/hjb.14.1.13
Hambali, K., Ismail, A., & Md-Zain, B. M. (2012). Daily activity budget of long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) in Kuala Selangor Nature Park. International Journal of Basic & Applied Sciences 12(4): 47-52.

Hambali, K., Ismail, A., Zulklifi, S. Z., Md-Zain, B. M., & Amir, A. (2012). Human-macaque conflict and pest behaviors of long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) in Kuala Selangor Nature Park. Tropical Natural History12(2): 189-205.

Hambali, K., Ismail, A., Md-Zain, B. M., Amir, A., & Karim, F. A. (2014). Diet of Long-Tailed Macaques (Macaca fascicularis) at the entrance of Kuala Selangor Nature Park (Anthropogenic Habitat): Food selection that leads to human-macaque conflict. Acta Biologica Malaysiana, 3(2): 58-68, doi: 10.7593/abm/3.2.58

Hanya, G., Noma, N., & Agetsuma, N. (2003). Altitudinal and seasonal variations in the diet of Japanese macaques in Yakushima. Primates 44(1): 51-59, doi: 10.1007/s10329-002-0007-7

Jones-Engel, L., Engel, G., Gumert, M., & Fuentes, A. (2011). Developing sustainable human–macaque communities. In A. Fuentes (Author) & M. Gumert & L. Jones-Engel (Eds.), Monkeys on the Edge: Ecology and Management of Long-Tailed Macaques and their Interface with Humans (Cambridge Studies in Biological and Evolutionary Anthropology, pp. 295-327). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, doi:10.1017/CBO9780511974434.014

Kassim, N., Hambali, K., & Amir, A. (2017). Nutritional Composition of Fruits Selected by Long-Tailed Macaques (Macaca fascicularis) in Kuala Selangor, Malaysia. Tropical life sciences research 28(1): 91–101, doi:10.21315/tlsr2017.28.1.6
Lyon, J. R. A. (2012). The'anatomy of Disturbance': A Study of Anthropic Disturbance on Barbary Macaque (Macaca Sylvanus) Troops in the Middle Atlas, Morocco. Department of Life Sciences, Silwood Park, Imperial College London.

Malaivijitnond, S., & Hamada, Y. (2008). Current situation and status of long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) in Thailand. Tropical Natural History 8(2): 185-204.

Malaivijitnond, S., Vazquez, Y., & Hamada, Y. (2011). Human impact on long-tailed macaques in Thailand. In A. Fuentes (Author) & M. Gumert & L. Jones-Engel (Eds.), Monkeys on the Edge: Ecology and Management of Long-Tailed Macaques and their Interface with Humans (Cambridge Studies in Biological and Evolutionary Anthropology, pp. 118-158). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, doi:10.1017/CBO9780511974434.007

McKinney, T. (2015), A classification system for describing anthropogenic influence on nonhuman primate populations. American Journal of Primatology 77: 715-726, doi:10.1002/ajp.22395

Md-Zain, B. M., Sha'ari, N. A., Mohd-Zaki, M., Ruslin, F., Idris, N. I., Kadderi, M. D., & Idris, W. M. R. (2010). A comprehensive population survey and daily activity budget on long-tailed macaques of Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. Journal of Biological Sciences 10(7): 608-615.

Md-Zain, B. M., Ruslin, F., & Idris, W. M. R. (2014). Human-Macaque Conflict at the Main Campus of Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. Pertanika Journal of Tropical Agricultural Science 37(1): 73-85.

Nijman, V., & Nekaris, K. A. I. (2010). Testing a model for predicting primate crop-raiding using crop-and farm-specific risk values. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 127(3-4): 125-129, doi: 10.1016/j.applanim.2010.08.009

Nila, S., Suryobroto, B., & Widayati, K. A. (2014). Dietary Variation of Long Tailed Macaques (Macaca fascicularis) in Telaga Warna, Bogor, West Java. HAYATI Journal of Biosciences 21(1): 8-14, doi: 10.4308/hjb.21.1.8

Norma-Rashid, Y., &Azarae, H. (1992). Feeding and home range studies of the long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) inhabiting forest fragments in the campus of the University of Malaya. Simposium Sumber Alam Kebangsaan Pertama FSSA UKM Kampus Sabah, pp. 249-258.

Priston, N.E.C.& McLennan M.R. (2013) Managing Humans, Managing Macaques: Human–Macaque Conflict in Asia and Africa. In: Radhakrishna S., Huffman M., Sinha A. (eds) The Macaque Connection. Developments in Primatology: Progress and Prospects, 43. New York, NY, doi: 10.1007/978-1-4614-3967-7_14

Riley, E. P. (2007). The human–macaque interface: conservation implications of current and future overlap and conflict in Lore Lindu National Park, Sulawesi, Indonesia. American Anthropologist New Series 109(3): 473-484.

Riley, E. P., & Fuentes, A. (2011). Conserving social–ecological systems in Indonesia:

Human– nonhuman primate interconnections in Bali and Sulawesi. American Journal of Primatology 73(1): 62-74, doi: 10.1002/ajp.20834

San, A. M., & Hamada, Y. (2009). Reproductive seasonality of Myanmar long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis aurea). Tropical Natural History 9(2): 223-234.

Sha, J. C., Gumert, M. D., Lee, B. P., Jones-Engel, L., Chan, S., & Fuentes, A. (2009). Macaque-human interactions and the societal perceptions of macaques in Singapore. American journal of primatology, 71(10): 825–839, doi:10.1002/ajp.20710

Sha, J. C. M & Hanya, G. (2013a), Diet, Activity, Habitat Use, and Ranging of Two Neighboring Groups of Food‐Enhanced Long‐Tailed Macaques (Macaca fascicularis). American Journal of Primatology75(6): 581-592, doi:10.1002/ajp.22137

Sha, J. C. M., & Hanya, G. (2013b). Temporal food resource correlates to the behavior and ecology of food-enhanced long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis). Mammal Study 38(3): 163-175.

Shek, C.T. & Cheng, W.W. (2010). Population survey and contraceptive neutering programme of macaques in Hong Kong. Hong Kong Biodiversity 19: 4–7.

Son, V. D. (2003). Diet of Macaca fascicularis in a mangrove forest, Vietnam. Laboratory primate newsletter 42(4): 1-5.

Sussman, R. W., & Tattersall, I. (1981). Behavior and ecology of Macaca fascicularis in Mauritius: A preliminary study. Primates 22(2):192-205, doi: 10.1007/BF02382610

Sussman, R. W., & Tattersall, I. (1986). Distribution, abundance, and putative ecological strategy of Macaca fascicularis on the island of Mauritius, southwestern Indian Ocean. Folia Primatologica 46(1): 28-43, doi: 10.1159/000156234

Ungar, P. S. (1994). Patterns of ingestive behavior and anterior tooth use differences in sympatric anthropoid primates. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 95(2): 197-219, doi: 10.1002/ajpa.1330950207

Wenz-Muecke, A., Sithithaworn, P., Petney, T. N., & Taraschewski, H. (2013). Human contact influences the foraging behaviour and parasite community in long-tailed macaques. Parasitology 140(6): 709-718, doi: 10.1017/S003118201200203X

Wheatley, B. P. (1980). Feeding and ranging of East Bornean Macaca fascicularis. In Linburg, D. (ed.), The Macaques: Studies in Ecology, Behavior and Evolution, Van Nostrand Reinhold: New York, pp. 215–246.

Yeager, C. P. (1996). Feeding ecology of the long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis) in Kalimantan Tengah, Indonesia. International Journal of Primatology 17(1): 51-62, doi: 10.1007/BF02696158